Wednesday, June 29, 2011

"Shanghai" Davis: the man who loved the Fourth of July

In 1967, Alistair Murray Isdale published History of the River Thames. In it is included the following intriguing partial portrait of one of this countries historic characters:

A negro from the Southern States of the USA, known as "Shanghai", but who preferred to be called Colonel Richard Davis, objected at an entertainment when someone called him a nigger and wanted him to move out of his seat. The resulting fight was talked about for weeks. Shanghai was around as usual next morning, but the would-be white supremacist did not show up for three days. Shanghai certainly made it clear that that kind of thing was not wanted in New Zealand. (p. 74)
Richard "Shanghai" Davis is found in a report from the Thames court in the aftermath of a probably well-celebrated Fourth of July on Davis' part in 1874. At this point, he doesn't have his nickname -- or at least, no one mentions it.
Richard Davis was charged with being drunk and disorderly in Owen-street Grahamstown. Defendant pleaded guilty. Fined 20s and costs, or 48 hours imprisonment ...

Richard Davis was charged with using bad language in a public place; to wit Owen-street, Grahamstown. Mr. Bullin said that he would not press for a fine in this case, the language being such as a man would use when drunk. The accused, a colored individual, in his defence said he had kept the 4th of July up too much, and asked their Worships to deal leniently with him. Case dismissed. The Court adjourned.

Thames Star 6 July 1874

When we see him next, in 1878, he had adopted the sobriquet of "Shanghai". No one ever seems to know why. The reports now also make note of his accent and way of pronouncing his words.

There is an old African known by the euphonious sobriquet of Shanghai, who resides in a tumble down old edifice at Kopu. He is a great favorite with the natives of the surrounding hapus, and when the County road works were started he was put on by one of the native foremen on a section of the road on which native labor alone was to be employed. All went well for a week or two until the eagle eye of one of the County big-bugs discerned the dusky visage of the poor nigger to be more of the Ethiopian than Malayese, and told the Maori overseer that Shanghai would have to be discharged, as he was a Pakeha. Shang now indignantly informs his numerous visitors " Dat he don't care a tarn for gettin' the sack, but to be ‘sulted by being called a buckra (white) man, ugh!" the last word being intended to express unutterable disgust.
Thames Star 18 March 1878

And he's right there for the Glorious Fourth.

There are not a few of our American cousins who entertain, to our English tastes, queer ideas relative to the observance of the national day of their country's independence—glorious Fourth of July. Yesterday, which was the 102nd anniversary of this memorable event, our reporter was perambulating Pollen street, when he was stuck up by that loyal old "cullud "Yankee who rejoices in the euphonious cognomen of Shanghai—why, we don't know, if it is not that he has but one eye. Shanghai had evidently been "keeping up" the f»áte day of his nation, and was fully three sheets in the wind. Fixing his solitary optic on our paragraph hunter, he thus addressed him: " Say, boss, have you got a spare quarter dol. about yer pants thet you can lend to an American citizen. Hare, I've bin ' bulljacking' around and spent all my money on beer, and ar'nt haf drunk yet. Thet won't do for the gal-orious foth you know, boss." Our reporter made him happy with a "Colonial Robert," with which, it is to be regretted, he increased his temporary mental aberration until kindly taken care of by the police.
Thames Star 5 July 1878

Now, he assumes the rank of "Colonel". From what army is never described.
Some time ago we expressed a hope that our colored friend "Colonel Richard Davis”, alias " Shanghai," would have rusticated in seclusion and sobriety at Kopu till the time arrived for his next periodical "burst”, the fourth of July, 1879. This, however, was not foreordained, as the "Colonel" visited Shortland yesterday, and wandered from the path of rectitude, inasmuch as he had a drop too much. He went into the back room of a Shortland "pub," exclusively devoted to Natives, and was unceremoniously ejected therefrom. He, however, was not; to be beaten,'and procured admission again and, amongst other exploits, "bunged up" the "peepers" of two of the ringleaders in his ejectment.
Thames Star 17 July 1878

County Council
"COLONEL” RICHARD DAVIS’ GARDEN.
A letter was read from Richard Davis, Kopu, asking compensation for his garden fence which had been removed for the road to Kopu. He asked three pounds, as there were "three chanes of fencing," which would take him three weeks to replace. The Chairman remarked that Mr Davis was a squatter. Received.
Thames Star 2 August 1878

The colored "Colonel" Davis (alias Shanghai), of Kopu, was in town last night, and through talking contemptuously of " dem no nufin' Britishers " was nearly getting the size of his head increased by artificial means on several occasions. He bailed our peripatetic against the wall of Butt's Hotel, and in response to a query after the health of himself and his "bull chicks," he replied that he was " hunkeydory." " But say, boss," he said, " the privileges of an American cit. was violentated on the gal-orious fo’th, and I was not 'lowed to sing the praises of my country." (He here gave statistical information concerning the States.) He then waxed eloquent, and said, " hough poor Shang was cotched by the spinions of the law while celebratin' the 'versary of his country's freedom, his country is still a great nation—a darnation great nation: the Stars are as bright as ever, and the stripes as broad as ever, and under the motter ' E fluribust unum,' which means one containin' of many, we shall live and conquer, and rise to a gal-orious resurrection." Shanghai then commenced to repeat the ten commandments, but stopped at the second and said, "Good night, boss ; thar's a chap a comin' round the corner that's goin' to punch this goss-eyed American game cock. By thunder, I ain't in a humor for fighting. I'm orf," and he ran round the corner.
Thames Star 9 August 1878

Some one walked over Shanghai's potato patch at Kopu recently, and the places that once knew several bushels of first-class tubers shall know them no more. A la Tukukino, the indignant proprietor insinuates that there will be trouble in Hauraki that he "kin diskiver the offensor."
Thames Star 2 December 1878

Shanghai—we beg his pardon, Colonel Davis-—was at Shortland yesterday evening, and for a considerable time was engaged in an animated discussion with some bystanders as to who was the greatest personage, George Washington, Sir George Grey, or Frederick Whitaker. After a long debate, Shanghai decided that the two W's were equally great.and the Premier not a "sarcumstance " to either of them. Having been informed that the Fourth of July was still five months distant, he departed on his homeward journey.
Thames Star 8 February 1879

As we surmised, the loyal American citizen Shanghai came in from Kopu yesterday, the "Glorious Fourth,'" to celebrate the natal day of American independence in a befitting-manner. At Endre’s hotel last night he delivered an oration replete with statistical information respecting the States, and wound up by reciting what he remembers of the celebrated “Declaration." A bystander, who had the shocking temerity to express a doubt about Shanghai being an American citizen, just escaped being "chawed up” by a lightning movement out at the door, followed by the sole of the “Cunnel's" boot, which came off as he made a desperate kick at the receding coat tails of his insulter.
Thames Star 5 July 1879


It was some time since the redoutable colored Yankee, Shanghai, visited town, but even the society of his "bull chicks" could not prevent the Kopu philosopher experiencing a feeling of ennui, and a visit to the Arcadian shades of Grahamstown was decided on. By the time he reached Brown street he had partaken sufficient tarantula juice to make him knock down any Britisher who denied the supremacy of Yankeeland, and in this state the " Colonel" rolled into Allaway's restaurant and ordered " dinnah," with an air of conscious superiority. This little manoeuvre would not wash, however, Jacob, the presiding genius of the hash foundry, knowing him of old; so he refused to give the great American a "squar' meal." Shanghai tried to get virtuously indignant, and appealed to the Britishers present to see that his rights as a citizen of the great republic were not trampled on, and again appealed for a feed. Jacob was inexorable, however, and sent for a policeman, who speedily ejected the unfortunate philosopher, despite much vigorous expostulations. When he appeared before the R.M. this morning on a charge of drunkenness, he appeared somewhat sheepish, but took the rebuke administered with the air of a man who is suffering in a glorious cause.
Thames Star 10 May 1880

"Colonel Davis," the renowned veteran warrior, who has retired into private life at Kopu, where for the remainder of his days he intends to pass the time in cogitations of his past glorious career; has discovered the reason for the construction of the railway from Shortland to Kopu. Speaking to a gentleman the other day, he delivered himself thus on the subject:—" You don't know why the railway was made? Well, I'll tell you. You see that there is a highly respectable influential gentleman living at Kopu, who, in addition to being occupied in agricultural pursuits, keeps large numbers of pigs and fowls. Now you see, the Government were aware that a railway was necessary to bring the aforesaid gentleman's produce to town. This ides was further strengthened by the representations, made to the Government by that celebrated gentleman. His name gentlemen, is Davis, and the Thames people have to thank him for the continuation of the railway line as far as Kopu."
Thames Star 3 October 1881

For a moment, he achieved some fame as far ad Auckland.
Everyone knows the old coloured gentleman at the Thames who travels under the ubiquitous cognomen of "Shanghai." He is an ex-pugilist and when he heard that Jem Mace had arrived in the Colony he thus soliloquised, "Wall, I would like to see Massa Mace. At the same time fitin 's hard work, and powerful bad for the eyesight."
Observer 4 March 1882

Defended Cases.
R DAVIS V. JOHN BUTCHER.
Mr Brassey for plaintiff.
Claim, 7s, value of spade.
Col. Richard Davis, of the United States army (popularly known as Shanghai) deposed that he is the proprietor of the Kopu wharf, and that he obtained a very particular and peculiar spade from Mr E. Carr two years ago. He lost it from near where he was ditching in May. It was not more than 500 yards from Butcher's house. He applied to Mr Butcher for the spade through Mr Trautman and Mr Rolleston, as he and Butcher were bad friends, and he wished to keep the peace. Never asked Mr Butcher for the spade.

John Butcher deposed—The day before he received the summons he was using a spade which they pretend to own. He bought it at Gudgeon's four years ago. The boy Brown came and asked for Davis' spade, and picked out a spade, saying it was Shanghai's. He said, "You young rascal, if you tell such a lie as that, I will make a mark on yon that you won't forget." He had not the spade, and knew nothing of it.

Wm. Brown, a lad, deposed to going to Butcher's for Davis' spade. Butcher showed him one, which he thought was Davis' (witness described it.) He could identify Davis’ spade. Butcher offered him the spade, and afterwards said if he accused him of stealing the spade he would visit him with vengeance so dire as to be unmentionable, consequently unprintable. It was worth about 1s 6d.

Wm. Trautman deposed that in the course of conversation Butcher said he had picked up the spade on the banks of river years ago.

James Sydney Rolleston corroborated the foregoing witness' evidence, and described the spade; the spade was only half a spade. He had worked with it a little, but it was too weak for him, so he threw it away. The boy asked Butcher for old Shang's spade. Witness corroborated the lad's evidence as to the threat used.

To defendant: I was present when the boy came.

Defendant: You are a false man.

Witness: The spade is worth nothing; I would not give twopence for it.

His Worship said it was virtually the boy's evidence against Mr Butcher's, as the last witness only knew the spade was very like Davis’ and the others had not seen it. Case dismissed. Court adjourned.
Thames Star 18 August 1882

The Glorious Fourth!
"Colonel" Davis is in town. Hail Columbia !
Thames Star 4 July 1888

To-day is the Fourth of July, the anniversary of American Independence, and for the first time for many years past we miss seeing the Stars and Stripes floating over the Pacific Hotel, Mr Curtis, the late proprietor, never neglecting to observe the day. The familiar face of " Colonel" Davis is also conspicuous today by its absence, and so the anniversary has been allowed to pass without being kept in any way, not even by a “pork and beans'' dinner, as we see by a telegram will be given in Auckland this evening in honor of the occasion.
Thames Star 4 July 1890

The glorious Fourth!
"Colonel" Davis in town. He was the first this morning to purchase a ticket for the American Minstrels performance tonight.
Thames Star 4 July 1891

"Colonel" Richard Davis yesterday celebrated the "Glorious Fourth" with his usual zest.
TS 5 July 1894

The Glorious Fourth fell on a Sunday this time, but this did not prevent Colonel Davis from taking charge of the town in his customary genial manner. The Colonel was greatly in evidence in Pollen street on Saturday night, and chanted American independence from one end of the town to the other. If ever the day arrives when Colonel Davis fails to celebrate .the .Fourth of July in our midst, Thames will certainly miss an old identity.
Thames Star 5 July 1897

To-day, being the 4th July, will be observed throughout the United States with the usual national rejoicings. Americans, in whatever part of the world they may happen to be, will not fail to celebrate the occasion in some form or other. It is almost superfluous to chronicle the fact that Colonel Davis, of Kopu, was in town to day. For many years past he has made a point of spending the 4th of July on the Thames, where he has numerous friends and acquaintances.
Thames Star 4 July 1898

Letters of naturalisation have been issued to Mr Richard Davis, better known as "Colonel Davis of Hikutaia. He is proud of being a British subject, but informed our representative that he did not consider it a breach of loyalty to the Queen to keep up the 4th of July, as he intends to do in the future as in the past.
Thames Star 9 November 1899

The Fourth of July was celebrated locally yesterday. Captain Barman and "Colonel" Davis, of Hikutaia, were in evidence, and they did full honour to the "Glorious Independence of the United States." Pork and beans, the usual dish, and the other accessories were provided at the Royal Hotel, and in the evening there was a first class fireworks display, which was witnessed by a large number of interested spectators.
Thames Star 5 July 1901

The last appearance found so far is this one, from 1904. After this, "Colonel" Richard "Shanghai" Davis seems to fade into obscurity.
Yesterday was the Fourth of July, the anniversary of the Declaration of American Independence. At the Royal Hotel, where several gentlemen from the United States are staying, the day was celebrated in right royal manner, and in the evening there was quite an effective display of fireworks. Of course the day would not be complete without the appearance on the scene of "Colonel" Davis, and that colored gentleman, with his tall hat and “C.B.s” became quite a conspicuous figure on the landscape!
Thames Star 5 July 1904

Monday, June 27, 2011

Otahuhu's rail mural


This, from the Otahuhu Despatch, May 2011, by the Otahuhu Historical Society (reproduced here with kind permission):

"This mural is located in Hall Avenue and shows the Otahuhu Railway Station in 1909.

"In May 1875 regular passenger services began on the newly constructed Penrose to Mercer extension of the railway line from Auckland. There were railway stations of request stops along the line between Otahuhu and  the terminus at Mercer.

"On 14 October 1919 at a well attended public meeting the Railways Department were called upon to improve the station. Residents complained that there was no verandah on the station, no waiting rooms, and no decent conveniences.  Two months later on the night of 15 December the station burnt down."


Bullocks, beer barrels and cemetery plots: more 19th century election stories

Shorthorn Bullocks Shorty and Spider from the Battensby Bullock team, photo by Liz Clark (Mad Bush Farm blog), 
by kind permission.

Reading a recent newsletter from the Silverdale Historical Society, I was intrigued by this piece they found in the Observer:

An Auckland resident who used to be a power in the land in the glorious old days when Maurice Kelly's working bullocks were on the electoral roll, tells a good story of his experiences during a recent visit to a country district. Haying the reputation of an expert in election matters the local Registration officer sought his advice in deciding on the qualifications of a number of persons who desired to be placed in the electoral roll. The work was duly gone through and the forms completed, until they came to one claim that appeared to be doubtful. The claimant was examined as to the nature of his qualification. He stoutly maintained his right to exercise the franchise, and being questioned as to his property he said the locus in quo was the cemetery. He was promptly informed that he could not be placed on the roll for such a qualification. "But," said the applicant, "I have erected a tombstone on that sacred spot at a cost of £45, and I can solemnly swear that I am thus possessed of property worth £25 as required by the Act." As the man displayed such laudable anxiety to exercise the privileges of an elector, and is moreover known to be a staunch supporter of the Hall Government, his request was acceded to.

Observer 19 November 1881


Election shenanigans in 19th century in the Auckland region have fascinated me for a while -- see the tale of the 1874 Waitemata Election, and J S Macfarlane's rather convenient subdivision of Riverhead. But bullocks? I had to find out more.

Maurice Kelly, a well-known character at the Wade (present day Silverdale and Waiwera districts, north of Auckland), definitely owned bullocks, as well as run a local pub. It seems the story hit the papers in 1862.
Political morality and purity of election were preached up on the polling day; yet in the same paper a decided misrepresentation of the arrangements sought to be entered into on behalf of Mr Graham to check personation was unscrupulously published. In the district of the Wade, however, personation would appear to have been rampant; for I am informed fifteen bona fide   voters only reside in that district, yet 61 votes were registered for Williamson, whilst Mr Graham only secured eight. There is a standing joke, that Maurice Kelly's bullocks are regularly polled in this district on the recurrence of elections.

Otago Witness 19 December 1862


And, it continued, now becoming synonymous with "something dodgy in the Wade polls" By 1872, it was reckoned they were counting beer barrels as well.

We were in error yesterday, as elsewhere explained. The correct returns up to the present hour in connection with the election are Stoney, 139; Buchanan, 113. Waiwera returns are not yet to hand, but there is little doubt Stoney is elected. It was Maurice Kelly's bullocks did it. We believe they were all polled to a man. Buchanan was returned by all the civilised parts. But Kelly's bullocks at the Wade, and Lamb's beer barrels at Helensville did the mischief. What has become of Waiwera we know not. We think it has got drunk and forgot to poll, or perhaps it has lighted its pipe with the ballot papers. We must therefore accept Stoney as the Councillor elect. Buchanan is beaten, but not conquered, and let all the white men of the district be glad in knowing that all beyond the Lake will soon be lopped off, and let the beer of Riverhead and the bulls at the Wade have it out in future among themselves.

Auckland Star 15 November 1872

At last Waiwera has spoken and pronounced for Major Stoney, the return being—-Stoney, 5 ; Buchanan, 3. This gives a total of 144 for Stoney, and 116 for Buchanan. The Major, therefore, has been elected by a majority of 28. Long live Maurice Kelly's bullocks. They are a power in the State.

Auckland Star 16 November 1872

The tale of Kelly and his bullocks, though, appears to have been true -- at least, if you take Maurice Kelly's word for it. Repeating an item in 1888 from the NZ Herald, the Hawke's Bay Herald related tales of wild election days at the Wade, when Maurice Kelly (believed by then to have been a centenarian) ruled:

On the establishment of provincial institutions Mr Kelly took an active part in political affairs. During the first Superintendency of the late Sir John Williamson he sat in the Provincial Council as representative for the Northern Division. Maurice could not be beaten at a polling booth. There is a time-honored jest current about his polling the bullocks at the Wade, but few people regard it as more than a joke, though it was a matter of sober fact. At one election, though he was carefully shepherded by two agents of the opposing candidate, he managed to put them on a false scent, and during their absence, though he had only five bona fide electors to work upon, he managed to poll 125 votes. He polled 14 times over himself. He had a whare about 100 yards from the polling booth, where various suits of clothes were kept for gumdiggers, in which they could exercise the privilege of "voting early and often." A number of gumdigger's wives also voted several times, and Mr S's daughters cut their hair short and polled at three stations: the Wade, Mahurangi, and the Hot Springs.

At one election, where the returning officer, a stranger, arrived at the Wade he told him the polling booth was at Wainui. Off the officer posted, and before he found out his mistake and returned Maurice had polled 50 bullocks. The process was to get an electoral roll, christen the bullocks after the names on the rolls, and poll them by batches from the slips. A partisan official never asked unpleasant questions, and never saw more than was convenient. At one of these contests a poll clerk, who did not know the simple-minded Patriarch of the Wade, remarked to him that "he had heard the Wade was an awful place for personation." Maurice replied with a smile childlike and bland, that "he didn't know; he was only a new chum, and had just come in from Matakana."

In the first Superintendency election, Colonel Wynyard v. Mr William Brown (of the firm of Brown and Campbell), Maurice pronounced for the soldier, and the "old woman", as he phrased it, for the merchant. The late Hon. Thos. Henderson sent a letter to Mrs Kelly (who was regarded as the grey mare of the Kelly team), asking her to do all she could for Brown. Maurice thus recounts the sequel: — " When she got the letter I had polled 18 to 20 votes for Wynyard. On reading the letter she came out with vengeance in her countenance, and gave me a kick on the centre of gravity, which sent me head-over-heels under the staircase. By the time I had picked myself up, she had 22 polled for Brown." His rule was never to fight with a woman, but to give her best.

He always voted straight, and only took one man's money, telling him right out whether he would vote for him or not. There was at this election six men lying pretty well drunk in a paddock, who were afraid of the "old woman", but would not vote without his sanction. He polled three for Wynyard and three for Brown repeatedly, as well as some bullocks. The result was, when the poll closed, that both candidates had 42 votes each, and he could not do fairer than that.

The last election in which the veteran electioneering agent took an active interest, was a triangular duel for the Superintendency between Messrs. John Williamson, J M Dargaville, and H H Lusk. Maurice looks back upon the good old days of polling bullocks with pardonable pride, and regretfully remarked that the voting was "now all messed up with new-fangled notions about the ballot," which prevented local talent from displaying itself ...

Though not strong on electioneering morality, Maurice was noted for his hospitality; and priest and parson coming that way were welcome to the shelter of his hospitable roof.

Hawke's Bay Herald 6 April 1888

He died on 24 October 1888, believed to be 104 years of age. Mind you, perhaps he also counted in the bullocks ...

Thursday, June 23, 2011

Two brewers named Arkell

Former Arkell Homestead, Hillsborough Road, Waikowhai. Photographed 16 June 2011.

In this country in the 19th century, there were two brewers and publicans with the surname of Arkell. Exactly what connection or relationship there was to each other, I still don't know, but the link only ever appeared years after the death of the first. Hopefully, as more of our newspapers appear online at Papers Past, and other national digital heritage databases make their appearance, then a few more pieces will be added to the puzzle.

[Update 23 August 2011: I've just received an email from Doreen M Muller, Arkell family historian, who wrote: "John and Daniel were brothers,  John being the elder by some years." Thanks, Doreen.]

Updated 26 May 2013 with info from NZ Herald.

Let's begin with John Arkell.

He first appears with an advertisement on 2 July 1863 in the Otago Daily Times for his White Star Brewery at Caversham, "Arkell & Peake, Brewers of Ale and Porter of the very best quality”.

WE, the undersigned, Hereby Give Notice, that we have this day, by mutual consent, dissolved the Partnership hitherto existing between us as Brewers. The Business, in future, will be carried on by JOHN ARKELL who will pay all debts and receive all accounts in connection with the late firm. (Signed) JOHN ARKELL. JOHN PEAKE. Witnesses— Henry East, Henry Crump. White Star Brewery, Caversham. 2nd August, 1864.
Otago Daily Times 8 August 1864

Later that month, White Star was taken over by Samuel Marks of the Dunedin Brewery. (OTD 18 August 1864) John Arkell apparently used that buy-out to start up another partnership on Weld Street in Hokitika with Samuel Pizzey, the Phoenix Brewery. (Timaru Herald 17 June 1865) This partnership led to a dissolution in March 1866, bankruptcy for Arkell for a time until September 1867, then reestablishment of the partnership as Samual Pizzey & Co up until October 1871. In the latter years at Hokitika, Arkell was also Steward of the local Jockey Club, while brewing Pizzey's beer. (various reports, West Coast Times)


By January 1872, Arkell had a store at Machine Site Road, Murray Creek, Inangahua with Frederick Franklyn. This partnership dissolved that month with Arkell selling his interest. (West Coast Time 6 January 1872; 13 January 1872) Arkell then said he would start a brewery at Inangahua. By April 1872, this was known as the Arkell & McPhee (Murdock) brewery. (West Coast Times 15 January 1872; Grey River Argus 8 April 1872)

In May 1874, Arkell shifts to Old Customhouse Street, Wellington, to take up a brewing partnership as Mace & Arkell. It is operational by August. Arkell hadn't forgotten his heyday on the West Coast: both Mace and Arkell were reported in the papers as having hailed from Hokitika. They also ran the New Zealand Hotel in Manners Street by 1875, then the Brunswick Hotel, Willis Street South sold their brews.
(West Coast Times 26 May 1874; Grey River Argus 2 November 1875; Evening Post  7 September 1876; 1 June 1876)

In 1878 Mace & Arkell’s brewery and hotel interests was sold to a George McCarthy, (Evening Post, 22 June 1878) but as was shown later after John Arkell had died, not all the interests were sold off. He then bought an interest in the Commercial Hotel in Wanganui, entering into partnership with W E McLevie formerly of the Royal Mail Hotel, Hokitika. (Evening Post 28 January 1879; West Coast Times, 14 March 1879)

Next came Arkell's period at the Maitai Malthouse in Nelson. He leased it for 10 years from 1 April 1879 from James Hooper. (Nelson Evening Mail 19 February 1880; 15 May 1880) At this point, John Arkell appears to have had an interest in Auckland. Whether he was up there for medical treatment (although why not at Wellington?) or some other reason is still not certain.

We regret to learn that a telegram was received to-day by Mr B Osborne from Mr Harper, traveller for the firm of Copeland and Co., stating that Mr Arkell, who has for some time been carrying on business in Nelson as a maltster and hopgrower, died suddenly at Auckland this morning. The cause of death is supposed to have been heart disease, from which the deceased was known to be suffering. Mr Arkell leaves a widow and family in Nelson.
Nelson Evening Mail 24 January 1881

He died in the Albert Hotel, Auckland, 24 January 1881, aged only 40 years. William Findlay and Thomas Duncan were appointed executors for Arkell’s estate. (Evening Post, 16 February 1881) Rosie, John Arkell’s widow, died at Nelson 9 January 1885. (Nelson Evening Mail, 10 January 1885) John Arkell's estate, however, continued -- and so we now introduce the second Mr Arkell.

Daniel Arkell

Tracking him is a problem. Daniel Arkell left very few traces of his career path prior to 1878. I was fortunate to find this first reference, a marriage notice from the Sydney Morning Herald of an event which took place back in the Old Country -- at Watford, Herefordshire, in 1876.

MARRIAGES.
ARKELL — WADE. — October 3, at Watford, Herefordshire,
Daniel, youngest son of Mr. John Arkell, to Susannah, only child of the late Frederick Wade, of Sydney, N. S. W., and eldest daughter of Mrs. Pain, Belmore-street, Albion Estate.
Sydney Morning Herald 3 February 1877

Then, he seems to have accompanied his bride Susannah back to Australia, arriving in Sydney on the Barrabool 23 February 1877. (Sydney Morning Herald, 24 February) He then set up what was to become his signature business -- a brewery. Well, at least for a few months.
NOTICE.
I have THIS DAY, sold to Mr. Killeher, all my right, title, and interest in a BOTTLED BEER BUSINESS, carried on by me at 161, Kent-street, Sydney.
Signed, JOHN KILLEHER, DANIEL ARKELL.
Witness: W. Ward, June 15, 1876. [1877]
Sydney Morning Herald 21 June 1877

A Mr and Mrs Arkell then left Sydney for Auckland on the Rotorua, 11 July 1877. (Sydney Morning Herald, 12 July) Eight months later, Daniel Arkell is mine host at the Point Russell Hotel, Mercer.
POINT RUSSELL HOTEL. MERCER.
DANIEL ARKELL begs to inform the travelling public that he has made great improvements to the above well-known Hotel, and in addition to other excellent accommodation, there is now added a Railway Refreshment Room at the Station for the special convenience of travellers by every train. The Best of Wines and Spirits. Hancock's sparkling Ale.
Auckland Star 15 March 1878

I suspect that he had an agreement with brewers Hancock & Co, as they were identified as the owners when the hotel burned in 1876. Up until mid 1889, all of Arkell's dealings whether as a publican or a bottler was in conjunction with the Newmarket firm. Later in 1878, he branched out to leasing the refreshment room at Mercer train station.

The refreshment room opened by Mr Arkell at the Mercer railway station, has proved not only a success financially, but has given unlimited satisfaction to travellers. Mr Arkell has a smart style of serving up the refreshments, and the hungry traveller can sit down at once to a hot meal, and have ample time to do justice to the same prior to the departure of the train. We understand that the railway department is so well satisfied with the success of the establishment that they have decided to add a ladies' refreshment room, which will embrace a variety of much-needed retiring rooms, and will be fitted up with mirrors &c., so that travelling beauties may attend to their personal adornments.
Auckland Star 30 July 1878

By August 1878, he was Chairman of the Mercer Highway District Board. (Public notice, NZ Herald, 5 August 1878, p1)
On Wednesday there was considerable excitement caused at Mercer, just as the train left for Auckland, by Mrs Arkell, of the Point Russell Hotel, suddenly missing a valuable diamond ring. She discovered her loss a few minutes after the servant had left the hotel. The servant was taking her final departure, having had notice to leave. Mrs Arkell at once told her husband, who went for Constable Walker, and the two ran down the line shouting after the train. The servant was charged with taking the ring, and from her pocket was produced one of Mrs Arkell's pocket-handkerchiefs, in which the diamond ring was wrapped. She was taken into custody, and charged yesterday before Captain Jackson with larceny, receiving a sentence of one month's imprisonment.
Auckland Star 13 September 1878

The manner of catering at the Refreshment rooms at Mercer is thus apologised for in the Auckland Star: — “The lessee of the Mercer refreshment room pays £53 per year to the railway department for the privilege of selling refreshment to the travelling public ; he also pays a further sum of £15 for license to sell liquors. On the arrival of each passenger train at Mercer, a repast is ready on the tables, consisting of two joints of meat, besides butter, jam, &c, and as many cups of tea or coffee as may be required, the charge for which is the reasonable sum of 1s 6d. The lessee labours under a disadvantage in not having separate rooms m which to provide a different class of refreshments. All passengers rush to one common table. The tattooed Maori, in his odoriferous blanket is seen sitting in proximity to the fair belle from the city. Half-drunken men squeeze in amongst the highest aristocracy of the land. With such diversity of people and tastes, the only chance of giving satisfaction lies in the caterer striking the happy medium and giving a good substantial meal at a moderate charge, which appears to have been done by Mr Arkell. With increased accommodation, first and second class tables might be provided at 1s and 2s, or whatever figure would satisfy. At least a select room for ladies should be added."
Waikato Times 8 March 1879


DESTRUCTION OF A RAILWAY STATION BY FIRE.
(PER PRESS AGENCY.)
Mercer, 19th May. About two o'clock this morning the Railway Station at Mercer, together with the refreshment room and ladies' waiting room, was completely destroyed by fire. It was caused by a heated stove pipe igniting a wooden wall. The fire was discovered by the people at Riddler's Hotel, and William Morgan gave the alarm. The fire was then bursting through the roof of the station office. Only a few articles of furniture were saved. The stationmaster had been making up accounts till after mid-night. No one slept on the premises. The buildings had recently been enlarged. Mr. Arkell is the proprietor of the refreshment-rooms, which are insured for £50 in the Norwich Union. He estimates his loss at between £40 and £50. The adjoining buildings were saved by the use of wet blankets. Had not the house been wet with rain, the Telegraph and Post Office and other buildings must have been destroyed. They were in great jeopardy, and as it was the furniture had to be moved out. Mr. McDonald, the General Manager, comes by special train (to) view the ruins.
Evening Post 19 May 1879

Waikato Times 25 December 1879

Then, sometime over the course of 1880-1882, Arkell moved north to Auckland, and never left. In April 1882, he purchased 128 Newton Road (2 lots) from Mrs Jane Fairburn and Mrs Susan Jane Bennett (NA 26/269), between what is today St Benedict's Street and Upper Queen Street. He may have lived there for a time, but he worked at Hancock & Co's building in Custom Street. (Advertisement, Auckland Star, 14 June 1882)

He was almost granted a licence for the (then) unfinished Waverley Hotel, but court actions (he sold a glass of sherry at the hotel without a license to do so) and licensing committee objections to the transfer prevented that. (Auckland Star 24 December 1883; 2 April 1884)

Arkell's Gladstone Street bottling store and brewery, Gladstone/St Benedict's Street frontage, possibly 1890s. Ref. 4-RIC96, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Auckland Council Libraries. By kind permission.

Then, in June 1886 – Arkell started construction of his Gladstone Street brewery, designed by architect Robert Keals, and built by Thomas Julian. (Auckland Star 18 July 1887) The court case he undertook suing the Council for damage done to his new building by their earthworks in levelling Gladstone Road he eventually lost, to the tune of £500 in total costs. (Thames Star, 26 July 1887) The bridge you see the children standing on remained there through to 1908 at least, connecting the raised street across the deep gully to the building's front door.

Then, in April 1887 comes the first link I have between the two Arkell brewers. 

Re John Arkell deceased.—Mr Harley applied for the appointment of Mr Daniel Arkell of Auckland, as a new Trustee, in place of Mr William Finley, who had renounced. The application was granted.
 Colonist 23 April 1887

Were John and Daniel Arkell brothers? John and Rosie Arkell had young children when John died, so I don't think he was Daniel's father as mentioned in the earlier marriage notice. The children, then still in their minority, were probably the reason for the enduring estate. It certainly gave Daniel Arkell a greater business than just his Eden Terrace bottling concern. For one thing, as executor to John Arkell’s estate, Daniel Arkell now owned the Newtown Hotel in Wellington. (Evening Post 5 May 1891; 7 May 1898)

In Auckland he was primarily a publican, or at least a license holder, up to April 1889, working in with Hancock's. He transfered the  license for the Royal Hotel, Princes St, Onehunga to Capt. Hargraves in March/April 1888, after holding it for around a couple of years. (Auckland Star 1 March 1888) In August 1888, James Murdoch transferred his licence for (then new) Avondale Hotel to Arkell (Auckland Star 8 August 1888) who retained it until further transferring to Michael Foley in June 1889. (Auckland Star 1 May 1889) He was one of Avondale's briefest publicans -- perhaps he didn't like the waters here?

By December 1888, during his period as Avondale's publican-in-name, Arkell was manager of the Te Aroha Soda and Mineral Waters Co., a subsidiary of Hancock & Co. Arkell’s office as Hancock & Co bottlers (the first use of his bottling plant at Eden Terrace, most likely) was at 83 Queen Street in May, 1889. By July, however, there seems to have been a parting of the ways between Arkell and his employer/partner of the previous 11 years – Arkell warned in public notices that Hancocks and their employees are not authorised to take money meant for him. (Auckland Star 4 May 1889; 31 July 1889) In turn, Hancocks sold the Te Aroha Soda and Mineral Waters company to John Grey & Son in November 1889. (Auckland Star 19 December 1888; 19 November 1889)



Arkell's Gladstone Street bottling store and brewery, from the rear, possibly 1890s. Ref. 4-RIC97, Sir George Grey Special Collections, Auckland Council Libraries. By kind permission.

From around August 1889, now in business for himself, Arkell now advertised that he bottled "Dunedin Ale & Stout, and Strachans XXXX Ale" from Gladstone Street. A claim that, a few years later, would cause trouble between him and the Dunedin brewers. From July 1902, they distanced themselves from Arkell in public notices which seemed to go on for weeks.


Auckland Star 11 July 1902



In July 1891, Arkell refused a wholesale license for an outlet on College Road ... (Auckland Star 14 July 1891)

Auckland Star 22 August 1891

... but by August 1891, his Eden Terrace bottling plant and brewery appears to have expanded to both Newton & Gladstone Road frontages. Now we see a trademark appearing, a star rising from the waters (I don't think it's a star sinking beneath the waters ...)

One thing about Daniel Arkell, he was certainly not a pushover. In fact, he was armed.

TRESPASSING.
A man named Thomas Lamb was charged at the Police Court this morning with having on the 21st of May wilfully trespassed on the premises of Daniel Arkell, and refusing to leave when warned to do so.

Captain Harris and Mr J. Gordon were the presiding justices. Inspector Broham conducted the case for the prosecution. Daniel Arkell deposed that the man was discharged from his employ, but he refused to go on Saturday. Constable Howell was sent for and removed him. At 7.30 o'clock witness again heard somebody on the premises and upon calling heard no reply. He hen fired his revolver into the ground to frighten the person. He found it was the defendant.

The prisoner stated that he had gone out and visited 22 houses n three hours for Mr Arkell. Upon returning, he was discharged for being so long. He claimed to receive 36s more than the amount paid him.

Inspector Broham said that the man had a wife and family. He suggested that the man should be cautioned and dealt with leniently. This was done, and a fine of 10s and costs, or 24 hours' imprisonment in default, was imposed.
Auckland Star 23 May 1892

He called upon the services of R Keals & Sons to design more premises at Gladstone Street in March 1894, a malthouse and storage premises. (Auckland Star 1 March 1894)

… the tender of Messrs Philcox and Son for £2,292 has been accepted. The new building is to be situated at the rear of the present brewery in Gladstone-street, near the head of Kyber Pass, and will form an extension of the present premises.
Auckland Star 15 March 1894


We would draw attention to a new advertisement appearing on Page 1 from Mr Daniel Arkell, of the Gladstone Brewery, Auckland. Mr Arkell has built up a splendid business in Auckland as a brewer, master, and bottler, and his brands are being extensively sod all over the colony. As he supplies a superior and most reliable article, he should meet with considerable success in the Thames and Up-country districts.
Thames Star 25 June 1896


Then, in 1901, he had his house built, at 461A Hillsborough Road, out in the country (the road was Ridge Road), with a splendid view of the many moods of the Manukau Harbour with a spacious garden and grassland of over 73 acres attached. Once again, he used his preferred architect, Richard Keals. There may not be many of Richard Keals' residences left in Auckland region -- this one, from the outside, is a beauty.
Messrs R. Keals and Sons received tenders to-day for a two-storey residence in brick at Waikowai, for Mr D. Arkell. The tender of Mr W. G. Smith, builder of this city, has been accepted (£2339).
Auckland Star 2 April 1901; NZ Herald 3 April 1901 p6



Arkell's Waikowhai property has a somewhat perplexing title history. We know he began arranging for his house to be built in 1901. The above plan (DP 3537, LINZ crown copyright) dates from October 1904, and shows his house facing Ridge Road, and the formation of "Arkell's Road" (now Dominion Road Extension) which took place in 1902 (advertisement from Mt Roskill Road Board, Auckland Star 8 February 1902). But, then we have the following notice:
LAND TRANSFER ACT NOTICE
Notice is hereby given that the several Parcels of Land hereinafter described will be brought under the Provisions of the Land Transfer Act, 1885, and its amendments, unless caveat be lodged forbidding the same within one month from the date of the Gazette containing this notice : — 4180 ALEXANDER AITKEN, JEANNIE STIRLING Part of Allotments 17, 18 and 21, Section 13, Suburb of Auckland, containing 73 acres 3 roods 21 perches, occupied by Daniel Arkell. Diagrams may be inspected at this Office. Dated this 7th day of October, 1905, at the Lands Registry Office, Auckland.
Observer 14 October 1905

In 1905, Alexander Aitken, Jeannie Stirling Richmond and Samuel Hesketh had title to the property (NA 130/157). Alexander Aitken and Jeannie Richmond were nephew and niece to land agent William Aitken who died in July 1901. Possibly (and I'd need to check the application file on this some time) Daniel Arkell had started coming to an agreement with William Aitken for the property, but Aitken's death intervened, putting Arkell into somewhat of a limbo legally. Meanwhile, Arkell's Road was formed, and in 1905 William Aitken's heirs, along with solicitor Samuel Hesketh, put in a successful claim to a title based on Aitken's estate. Arkell finally secured title formally in November 1905, but the Aitken family included the following in the transfer:

"... reserving to the said Alexander Aitken, Jeannie Stirling Richmond and Samuel Hesketh one half of all minerals (except kauri gum) metals and precious stones ..." (NA130/157)

Arkell apparently secured more land on the other side of Arkell's Road later on.
4716 — DANIEL ARKELL — Parts of Allotment 15, 16, 17, Section 13, Suburbs of Auckland, containing 37 acres 3 roods 25.4 perches, and right of way, occupied by applicant.
Observer 12 September 1908

Auckland Star 30 December 1899

Also in 1901, another brief chapter in Arkell's career -- the time he ran for election as Mayor of Auckland City. When he wasn't supposed to ...

In 1901, the royal visit of the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall (future King George V) occurred. The city fathers, aware that Dr. John Logan Campbell intended giving his One Tree Hill estate to the people of Auckland, thought it would be wonderful if they had the "Father of Auckland" himself installed as Mayor in time to greet the royal visitors. To that end, one candidate (Joseph H Witheford, MHR) was convinced to withdraw, so that Campbell would be appointed Mayor without need for an election.

Observer 23 March 1901

DR. CAMPBELL AS MAYOR
(To the Editor.)
Sir,— I trust Dr. Campbell will accede to the unanimous desire of the Auckland people to accept the office of Mayor. There\, need be no personal trouble imposed upon our venerable fellow-citizen in connection with the matter. It would be such colossal impudence for anyone to contest the election that no fear of opposition need be entertained.—I am, etc., W. J. NAPIER, March 13th, 1901
Auckland Star 14 March 1901

For three weeks, it all seemed to be done and dusted. And then ...

Mr David Arkell announces himself as a candidate for the Mayoralty of Auckland. Dr Campbell is not to have a walk over after all.
Thames Star 8 April 1901

Mr. Daniel Arkell, brewer, at one time in Wellington, is a candidate for the Mayoralty of Auckland.
Evening Post 12 April 1901

He also had policies, which he expressed in newspaper notices.

THE MAYORALTY ELECTION.
TO THE ELECTORS OF THE CITY OF AUCKLAND.
LADIES AND GENTLEMEN,— In placing myself before you for such a responsible position as that of Mayor of the City. I am not actuated by any personal motive, nor with ambition for honours, but strictly to look keenly after the interests, welfare, and improvements of the City. I beg therefore respectfully to place before you briefly my views on a few of the most Important matters connected with the City.
1. CITY WATER SUPPLY.-I consider it a shame that this important work has not been carried out long ago. I am in favour of the present scheme, and consider the work should be pushed ahead without delay. We should then have a cheaper supply of water, and would be able to adopt the flush pan system in our closets, and thus do away with the present pan system, which is a nocturnal nuisance and likely to spread the germs of disease in the most healthy locality.
2. SEWERAGE.—I am in favour of a complete permanent system of drainage, and consider that our drains should be more frequently cleansed than they now are.
3. FIRE BRIGADE AND STATION.—I am in favour of the new site, and consider the building should be started without delay, and that the latest improved fire appliances and fire life escape should be obtained. I would also like to see a properly trained Fire Brigade, to be paid annual salaries, the men to be located at the Brigade Station. In this respect Auckland is very much behind other centres of the colony.
4. OUR STREETS.-They speak for themselves, and certainly require a great deal of attention and repair, which should be taken in hand during the coming winter.
5. SWIMMING BATHS.—I am in favour of erecting another Swimming Bath with as moderate an outlay as possible, and feel sure if erected to suit the people the cost would soon be repaid.
6. ELECTRIC LIGHT—This I am strongly in favour of. Auckland is shamefully behind the times in this respect, and now we are to have Electric Trams there is no reason why we should not have Electric Light—this not to be monopoly, but the property of the City.
7. CITY ABATTOIRS.—These should be erected on a more suitable place than the present, and placed under proper supervision; no meat to be allowed to leave for the market without being stamped. This system is adopted in other large cities and found to work admirably.
8. I am in favour of rating on the unimproved land values.
9. VICTORIA PARK.—I am in favour of the Park, but would endeavour to secure the whole of the Patteson-street frontage.
TOWN HALL.—This question has been too many years neglected, and I would be in favour of purchasing the adjoining allotments and erecting a handsome building suitable to the requirements of the City.
DRILL SHED.—I am in favour of a new Drill Shed being erected suitable to the wants of our Volunteers, and the site to be decided on by a vote of the Volunteers of the district. This, however, is not a municipal matter, but one which affects the Instruction and strengthening of our Volunteers, who certainly should be afforded every encouragement, not knowing the day that their services may be again required.
I have the honour to remain,
Yours obediently,
DANIEL ARKELL. April 13, 1901.
Auckland Star 13 April 1901

Outrageous! This Eden Terrace brewer, of seemingly little fame, compared with the founder of the Campbell side of the Campbell & Ehrenfried business empire of breweries and hotels, had the "colossal impudence" to try to spoil the best laid plans of the City Fathers. Such is why I privately call Daniel Arkell "the spoiler". Graham Bush, in Decently and In Order: The Centennial History of Auckland City Council (1971) refers to Arkell as "an undeferential hard-heart" who "perversely made the aged doctor go to the polls."

The City Fathers tried to dissuade Arkell ...
MR ARKELL AND THE MAYORALTY.
Yesterday afternoon a deputation consisting of Messrs J M. Shera, A. R. Watson and W. J. Courtney waited on Mr D. Arkell in connection with his nomination for the office of Mayor during the ensuing term. Mr Courtney, who acted as spokesman, pointed out to Mr Arkell that the election of Dr. Campbell bore every appearance of being by all classes in the community, and it was difficult to see what object Mr Arkell could have in courting certain and probably ignominious defeat. Before anything more was said Mr Arkell broke in with an assurance that he was determined to go to the poll and abruptly left the deputation, which had no alternative but to withdraw.
 Auckland Star 17 April 1901

Mr Daniel Arkell is apparently determined to go to the poll for the Auckland Mayoralty. A deputation waited upon him to impress upon him the advisability of retiring from the contest for the Mayoralty, as they believed that they represented the voice of the community, and in their opinion, he had no chance of being elected. Before Mr Courtney had spoken to Mr Arkell for three minutes the latter went out of the room and would not hear anything further, but simply contented himself with stating that he would go to the poll. Mr Courtney says that before Mr Arkell left the room he told that gentleman that it was the general desire of citizens that Dr. J. Logan Campbell should be Mayor. He again asked Mr Arkell to retire with a good grace. Mr Arkell declined to retire, and left.
Thames Star 18 April 1901


While the Auckland Star was certainly in full har-rumph mode.
(Editorial)
The nomination of Mr. D. Arkell for the position of Mayor of our city has been received with as much amusement as surprise. It is extremely difficult to understand Mr. Arkell's reason for making his debut in local politics at this juncture. He could not have selected a more inopportune moment. Aucklanders have, we believe, rarely been as unanimously in favour of any candidate for office as in the case of Dr. Campbell. He undertook to fill the Mayoral chair at the request of a deputation truly representative of Auckland's citizens. A gentleman who has rendered considerable public service, and who was contemplating offering himself for the position, courteously withdrew when Dr. Campbell was prevailed on to accede to the wish of the many, and allow himself to be nominated. Now Mr. Arkell, who, as far as we are aware, has never taken an active part in municipal or colonial polities, and whose name even is quite unknown to many Aucklanders, comes forward and asserts his unalterable intention of putting the question to the vote. We do not for a moment wish to suggest that any man has not a perfect right to aspire to the highest position in our local government, but the peculiar circumstances of the present case make the nomination of Mr Arkell in questionable taste. Could this gentleman show us that any one section of Aucklanders is desirous of his offering the city his services, a different complexion would be put on the case, but careful enquiry fails to elicit any information as to from what class or body Mr. Arkell expects to gain support. As a business man Mr. Arkell has, we believe, proved his ability, and we should be glad to see him take an active interest in municipal affairs. But to put the city to the cost of a useless election is a proceeding which the majority of citizens will, we feel sure, regard as wholly inexcusable.
Auckland Star 17 April 1901


The Auckland Ratepayers' Association met last evening, Mr Caleb Wood presiding. In reference to the Mayoralty, Mr Wood expressed the opinion that Mr Arkell had acted inadvisedly in coming out in opposition to Dr. Campbell, and putting the city to considerable expense, when his prospect of success were comparatively nil. The Association resolved, on the motion of Mr Wm. Coleman, to declare in favour of Dr. Campbell, and to take all possible steps to forward that gentleman's candidature for the Mayoralty.
Auckland Star 18 April 1901

The result, though, was a foregone conclusion.

The contest between Dr. J. Logan Campbell and Mr D. Arkell for the City Mayoralty resulted, as was anticipated, in an overwhelming majority for Dr. Campbell, who polled 3517 votes against his opponent's 895.
Auckland Star 25 April 1901

And with that, Daniel Arkell slipped back out of the limelight.

Prohibition, then a rising force, started to clip back sections of his business empire. The Newtown Hotel in Wellington closed on 30 June 1903 due to the previous year’s prohibition poll. (Evening Post 26 November 1902) He still had his brewery at Gladstone Street, managed from 1906 by Herbert J Arkell (NZ Herald 11 April 1906 p4) He finally retired from the business in 1909.

Mr D Arkell, brewer, was presented by his past and present employees on Friday evening with a large gramaphone, suitably inscribed, on the occasion of his retirement from the business, which has just changed hands. The manager, Mr W Duncan, made the presentation, and. Mr. Arkell suitably replied. During the evening a number of songs were contributed by those present, and the gathering terminated with the singing of "Auld Lang Syne."
NZ Herald 4 October 1909 p.6

Arkell left for England for a time in 1910, and in January 1911 his Waikowhai house was offered for lease -- 50 acres all in grass, two-storey 12-room brick house, large stables and coach house, "view over the whole Manukau Harbour". (NZ Herald, 25 January 1911, p3)

Susannah Arkell died on 8 March 1912, and Daniel Arkell followed her on 17 December that year. They were both buried at Waikumete Cemetery. William Henry Knock, a wine and spirit merchant and Thomas Clifford Rowly Thatcher, accountant, were named as executors of Arkell's estate. (NA 26/290) Thomas Thatcher and his wife Mary were appointed guardians of Arkell's sole heir, an adopted daughter Elsie Bertha Dunlop Arkell, aged around seven years old.

We know about her due to an almost Dickensian-style tale revealed in a court case in 1918.


HEIRESS TO FORTUNE.
GUARDIANS IMPEACHED
The action of the guardians of the heiress to an estate worth between £14,000 and £15,000 was challenged in a case which was commenced in the Supreme Court on Saturday before Mr Justice Cooper (says the "New Zealand Herald"). Wm. H. Knock, merchant, of Auckland (the Hon. J. A. Tole, K.S., and Mr Pullen), petitioned for the removal of Thomas C R Thatcher and his wife, Mary Delicia Thatcher (Mr Prendergast), from the guardianship of Elsie B. D. Arkell, a girl about 13 years of age, who is sole beneficiary under the will of the late Daniel Arkell, brewer, of Auckland, by whom she had been adopted. It was also prayed that the petitioner and. Dr. R.. M. Beattie be appointed by the Court as guardians of the child.

Mr Arkell, who died in December, 1912, appointed Messrs Knock and Thatcher executors of his will, and Mr and. Mrs Thatcher guardians of the child. His estate was to vest in the child when she became of age, or married, and in the event of her death before she reached the age of 21 it was to pass to the Jubilee Institute for the Blind. To the guardians he left an allowance of £150 per annum for the child's proper maintenance, clothing and education, and he directed that she should be brought up in the faith of the Church of England.

Mr Tole, in opening the case for the petitioner, said that under the will Miss Arkell inherited an income of between £850 and £900 a year. In May 1915, Mr Thatcher sent her to St. Cuthberts College, but after seven months he took her away to what might be called the back blocks at Waiharakeke, near Raglan, where he had acquired a farm. There she was required to do what could be described as menial drudgery, and was certainly injurious to her health. Mr Knock became doubtful whether the money paid to the Thatchers was being expended in accordance with the will, and, at his insistence, the girl was sent back to St. Cuthbert's College in February last. On her arrival there her wardrobe was found so deficient that clothing had to be borrowed for her. In May she was removed by the Thatchers to Mrs Moore-Jones's School, where she still was. Mr Tole read affidavits by Drs. Milsom and Beattie to the effect that the girl had told them that she was required to rise at 5 .a.m. and to milk four cows morning and evening, that she was not always able to attend school, and that on Saturdays and holidays she was sent out to cut scrub; also that the Thatchers frequently beat her and threw plates at her. It was also stated in the medical affidavits that she was anemic, and of less than average height and weight, and that her education was backward.

Mr Justice Cooper interrupted Mr Tole with a remark that the statements just quoted were purely hearsay on the part of the deponents and could not be accepted as evidence, seeing that the girl herself was a competent witness. The affidavits filed were so contradictory that it was necessary that Miss Arkell should come before the Court for examination.

Mr Prendergast said the child's explanation was that the statements made by her consisted principally in answering "Yes" and ''No" to questions.

After further discussion His Honour adjourned the case to a date to be fixed, both counsel undertaking that until the further hearing neither of their clients should approach the girl.

Affidavits filed by the respondents stated that the child was taken to the country under medical advice; that she was having proper education at the local school and by means of private tuition, and that when it was considered that her health permitted she was sent to boarding school. The deficiency in wardrobe was accounted for by the fact that Mrs Thatcher, on her way to St. Cuthbert's with the girl was taken ill, and had to be removed to the Auckland Hospital, being thus unable to complete the wardrobe by purchases in the city. It was denied that the girl was ever called upon to do milking or other farm work. She had, it was alleged, always been weak in constitution, and the local schoolmaster's testimony is quoted to the effect that she appeared well cared for and happy in her environment.
Ashburton Guardian 1 August 1918

Was the case ever continued? I don't know yet. But Elsie Arkell married Percival Ernest Thatcher, son of her guardians, on 3 January 1923, and died 14 February 1924, aged 19. (BDM online) She was buried in Hillsborough Cemetery.

Executors Knock and Thatcher sold the Newton Road property to John Spinley a bootmaker and his wife Agnes Kate in 1913 (NA26/290). The Gladstone Road property, leased by Arkell to gum dealer Max Lichtenstein from 1910, was sold outright to Lichtenstein in August 1912, before Arkell's death (NA26/292). As for Arkell's grand country homestead at Waikowhai, Percival Thatcher, Elsie's husband, inherited William Knock's trusteeship in 1923, and with his father subdivided the property from August 1925. The Sisters of the Good Shepherd opened their Mt Joseph Orphanage at the homestead in 1931, selling the property only in 1985 when it was converted to become part of the current Hillsborough Heights retirement complex.

Update 29 June 2011: I was given the wonderful opportunity today of having a close look at the building which still exists at 29 St Benedict's Street, now altered internally as apartments, at the invitation of one of the residents (many thanks!)

It was pointed out to me that a spring of water flows from St Benedicts Street down into the gully where Daniel Arkell built his bottling and brewing plant, which would explain why, despite all the strife with the Council over the levels, Arkell still sited his business there. The remains of an old well appears to be intact beside the southern side of the tall building. The following images come from today's visit to the site.





Monday, June 20, 2011

Bulldogs on the briny

 Image: HMS New Zealand, from Wikipedia.

HMS New Zealand lasted for 11 years, from 1911 until she was sold for scrap in 1922. An account of her career can be found here.  Despite her scrapping, New Zealand was still paying the British Government for her up to the 1944/1945 financial year.


There are some relics left behind. This wooden casket was made from her timbers by the Scottish scrapyard workers where she met her end, and is on display today at the Auckland War Memorial Museum.


Alongside the casket is this display -- mementos of the "other" Pelorus Jacks, two bulldogs named after the more famous dolphin, and donated to serve on the New Zealand.

The first Pelorus Jack bulldog , as a pup, was presented to the ship's crew apparently by a Mr Pomeroy. It was formerly introduced to King George V at Portsmouth on 5 February 1913 (Poverty Bay Herald 14 March 1913). Two heavy silver collars were presented for the puppy. It isn’t known though whether he actually wore them. They seemed to be just for display.

This first mascot met with an early death.
The mascot, Pelorus Jack, a bull-dog puppy, came to an untimely death by falling down the funnel casing and being burned to death. His loss is mourned by the men, who had became very attached to the dog, as he was on deck barking at the shells all through the two engagements, and he was to have been presented with a medal. It is believed that the New Zealanders in England are going to present the ship with another mascot, as a little black kitten is the only pet they have now.

Evening Post 1 September 1915

Life on board for the navy bulldogs wasn't exactly easy. In late December 1915, early January 1916, while passing through the Red Sea with the surrounding water reaching a temperature of 96 degrees, the dog on board the hospital ship Maheno was only kept alive by being packed with ice. (Wanganui Chronicle, 12 January 1916)

The second Pelorus Jack bulldog, though, seemed to take to life on the high seas, amidst a world war, much better than his predecessor.  After the Battle of Jutland, it was reported: "the bulldog, which has taken the place of a better known predecessor in the role of mascot, the former animal having died last year by an accident, slept peacefully through the action." (Hawera & Normanby Star 11 August 1916)

"Pelorus Jack," a brindled bulldog, has been the mascot and wardroom pet on H.M.S. New Zealand for some four years past. He served through the battle of Jutland. He knows what is happening so well that when "stations" is sounded he seeks refuge, and when the guns begin to roar he has a rest down below.

Hawera & Normanby Star, 7 August 1919

All wars, thankfully, come to an end eventually, and the HMS New Zealand's  mascot was decommissioned, just as the ship itself would soon follow. He ended up here in Auckland, on the Hauraki Gulf.
A Press Association message states that the mascot of the battle-cruiser New Zealand, the bulldog Pelorus Jack, was handed over by Captain Leggett to the Deputy-Mayor as a gift to the citizens of Auckland: The "able sea dog" was immediately despatched to Motuihi Inland, where it will require to remain in quarantine about six months. The period may be less, seeing that since leaving Australia on board the New Zealand, Pelorus Jack has not been ashore at all. In the meantime its silver harness and its gold collar have been taken possession of by the Superintendent of Parks, who will eventually be the custodian of the dog.
Evening Post 4 October 1919

But, sadly, life as a landlubber after almost always knowing life on the sea, didn't suit.

Pelorus Jack, the mascot of the battle cruiser New Zealand, died on Motuihi Island on Wednesday last while being exercised, reports the New Zealand Herald. The dog was presented to the Auckland City Council during the recent visit of the New Zealand, 'and was placed' in quarantine on Motuihi for six months. When presenting Pelorus Jack to Auckland, Captain O. E. Leggett stated that the dog was four years old, and had been with the vessel in the North Sea fights. He was rated as an "able seadog."
Evening Post 12 April 1920



Sunday, June 19, 2011

Waikowhai Park

Detail from SO 16220, 1911, LINZ crown copyright

Back in 1911, under a special act of Parliament which validated a previous agreement between the Wesleyan property trustees and the Mt Roskill Road Board, Waikowhai Park was passed to the Road Board's control. Later on, the Road Board evolved into a Borough Council, and amalgamated with Auckland City in 1989. But a rather pretty park has had a somewhat rocky history last century.

According to the text of the Waikowhai Park Act, the land was part of a vast area granted in 1850 to the Superintendent of the Wesleyan Mission in New Zealand "to hold unto the said Superintendent and his successors in trust, nevertheless, and for the use and towards the support and maintenance of the school therein recited as established at Three Kings ..." 

"The native teachers of the Karakariki school, on the Waipa (Andrew and Martha Barton) deserve my praise, and the favourable consideration of Government, for their exemplary conduct, and for their untiring and really valuable services in the work of education." In the same year that the removal to the Three Kings had been carried into effect Governor Grey supplemented the gift of Governor Fitzroy by a grant of twenty acres near to the land already held in trust. In the deed of conveyance of this land the European element is first introduced. The deed states that the land is given in support of "the education of our subjects of both races, and of children of poor and destitute persons being inhabitants of the islands of the Pacific Ocean; in trust, nevertheless, and for the use or towards the support and maintenance of the said school so long as religious education, industrial training and instruction in the English language shall be given to those educated therein or maintained thereat." Other grants of land made on similar terms to the institution have placed it in possession of about 600 acres. This includes a place called Waikowai, on the Manukau, deserted by the natives. The soil at the latter place is not considered very good but firewood can be obtained on the spot, and the Maoris connected with the institution have chosen the place near a fishing ground, and by this means succeed occasionally in procuring an agreeable change of food.
 Otago Witness 20 August 1864

By the end of the 19th century, the area was becoming recognised as a recreation spot for those hardy travellers braving the rough-and-ready Ridge Road to enjoy a Manukau foreshore getaway from it all.
WHERE IS CAPE HORN?
IT ADJOINS WAIKOWAI BAY AND WATTLE BAY, MANUKAU HARBOUR. Cape Horn is a Government Reserve, BEST PLACE FOR PICNIC PARTIES During the Summer Months. ~  Within 45 minutes drive of Auckland, and Half Mile past Klondyke Store, Mt. Roskill.
Auckland Star 12 December 1900

On 20 July 1911, the Wesleyan Trustees came to their agreement with the Road Board, but needed the power of an act of Parliament to reverse the earlier 1850 grant in this case.

Any scenic reserve runs a great risk of being destroyed by fire (says the "New Zealand Herald"), especially if holiday-makers are allowed to picnic in it. Waikowhai Park, which is shortly to be opened to the public, is no exception to the rule. Water has been laid on for the benefit of holiday makers, but it is not intended to allow visitors to light fires and thus jeopardise the safety of the reserve. The caretaker will see to the boiling of water for holiday makers, and no one else will be allowed to light a fire for any purpose whatever. By this means it is hoped to preserve what is one of Auckland's numerous beauty spots.
NZ Truth 17 January 1914

There are a couple of pictures on the old Auckland City Council website of the park, and Waikowhai (once Wesley) Bay which it slopes down towards. Sadly, though, it was used as a landfill site during last century. There is still quite visible signs of leachate from the soils there, but rehabilitation work has been done and new concrete paths have been laid. In summer, a walk around the park, with its stunning views of the Manukau Harbour, would be well worth the trek.

It also has a set of ruins.

At some point, this was a changing shed block.  Probably abandoned and left to rot when the park was just used as landfill (I really do need to find out sometime why that happened), its age is uncertain.




Looks like where cubicles used to be, the partitions long gone.



But someone hanging around down in the damp and the weeds has added an interesting touch to the old remains -- a fireplace painted on the bare concrete wall, complete with comforting fire.