Tuesday, January 4, 2011

More hangman's tales

Further to these previous posts:
Lewis the Hangman
Other NZ executioners

Henry Hislop
Asserted that he executed Wiremu Hiroki (Taranaki) 8 June 1882, although this has been attributed to Heyman/Lewis (see above)

Hiroki, who was condemned to death on the 4th May last for the wilful murder of John McLean on the Momahaki, was executed this morning at the New Plymouth gaol …Hiroki ascended the scaffold with a firm step, and, although his countenance was pallid, he betrayed no other sign of emotion. He stepped forward to the spot indicated by the executioner, and stood firmly. Archdeacon Govett commenced the bural service in the Maori language, reading it in a very impressive manner. He paused for a short time while the executioner put the rope and the cap over Hiroki's head. When everything was adjusted, the Arcdeacon continued the service. Before the last words were uttered, the drop fell, and Hiroki disappeared from sight. It was done so suddenly that no one heard anything to denote that the last moment had arrived. There was no pause, and the service seemed scarcely completed when Hiroki fell. Hiroki scarcely moved a muscle during the time he stood on the scaffold after everything had been arranged by the executioner, nor did he utter a word. Not the least hitch occurred in connection with the apparatus, and in an instant Hiroki was no more. The persons on the scaffold descended, and, after waiting for a few minutes, the spectators withdrew. The gallows was erected under the superintendence of Mr. Micaiah Read, gaoler, of Wellington, and every care was taken by him to prevent any mishap occurring.

(Taranaki Herald, 8 June 1882)

Boasts He's a Hangman.
A disgusting old brute named Henry Hislop, whose partially-bald pate offended the eye like a half-munched field turnip showing signs of decay, broke out of Christchurch Samaritan Home recently and allowed his filthy tongue to earn him a period in gaol. The grey-whiskered re-probate got into an argument with another ancient named Halliburton, in Manchester-street, arid called him by a horribly obscene name, so that the police Intervened, and discovering a bunch of keys belonging to the Home on his person, added a charge of theft in the Magistrate's Court next morning.

Asked how he pleaded, Hislop remarked, "Kahore moia te korero Maori eakiwhai," or words to that effect. "I don't wish to implicate anybody;" he said, condescendingly. "I was chucked out of the Home because I hung Hiroki in the Taranaki gaol in 1861 [sic]." Old Halliburton testified that Hislop had called him a "dirty old blankard and "a blanky old blankard," and it wasn't true that he, Halliburton, had hurled a stone at his slanderer.

The cross-examination led to an altercation.
asked the unpleasant accused, to which Halliburton replied that he would have none of Hislop 's damned cheek. Religious persons in the Court were horrified at the proceedings, which were presided over by a trio of JPs.

"I'm a hangman, anyway," pursued Hislop, addressing no one in particular. "I'll hang you," he asserted, eyeing Halliburton with ferocity. "I'll give you a good drop," he added magnanimously.

Attendant Roache, of the Samaritan Home, stated that Hislop wasn't kicked out of the Home, as has been alleged by him; moreover, his ordinary demeanour was nothing like his conduct in Court, which looked like simulated lunacy. He identified the keys as belonging to the Home.

Hislop hurled brutally obscene suggestions at this witness, and hinted about the receipt of an extra pound of tobacco in return for an unmentionable consideration. "What about the red-haired matron?" he asked. He also spoke darkly of indecent practices in the Home, and the obscenities issued from his mouth like bloated maggots from the orifice of a month-old corpse. Two months for obscene language and a month for theft (concurrent) were the sentences. Verily, the pressman sees the seamy side of life.

(NZ Truth 1 August 1908)

"Pinching" a Paper. — Henry Hislop was charged with having stolen a newspaper, the property of the Samaritan Home trustees. The officers at the Home for some days, according to the police, had not been receiving the morning newspaper that was regularly left by the paper-runner. Early this morning Constable Jackson concealed himself in the grounds of the Home and caught Hislop in the act of taking the paper. Hislop denied his guilt, but the Magistrate upheld the prosecution and the accused was convicted and discharged.

(Christchurch Star, 26 October 1908)
Vagrancy. — Henry Hislop was nominally sentenced to three months' imprisonment on a charge of having no lawful means of support, the Magistrate suspending the warrant if the accused remained in the Samaritan Homo for that time.

(Christchurch Star, 19 November 1908)

Tom Long
Executed: William Henry Woodgate (Picton) 25 January 1877
(initially as “An unknown swagman”, but his identity revealed in 1901)
Possibly executed: Makoare Wata (Napier) 28 September 1889
Possibly executed: Alexander James Scott (Auckland) 22 May 1893
Executed: Minnie Dean (Invercargill) 12 August 1895
Possibly executed: Etienne Brocher (Wellington) 21 April 1897
Possibly executed: William Sheehan (Lyttleton) 21 July 1897
Executed: Frank Philpott (Wellington) 23 March 1898
Possibly executed: Charles Clements (Dunedin) 12 April 1898
Possibly executed: Enoka (New Plymouth) 2 May 1898
Executed: Alexander McLean (Lyttleton) 31 August 1901
Executed: James Ellis (Wellington) 28 February 1905

Tom Long, appearing virtually from nowhere as a travelling swagman with experience of using the noose in India, became the late 19th and early 20th century’s most well-known hangman in New Zealand, rivalling Hayman/Lewis.

Nowadays, the hangman selected generally, and wisely so, hides his light under a bushel, but it was not so in the old days. In the eighties and nineties, when old Tom Long used to give condemned murderers the official despatch, he didn't mind a little publicity. Long was an Indian mutiny veteran, v/ho, when not engaged m a hanging capacity, used to live with the Maoris up the Wanganui River. He was a. bit of a character and would be described nowadays, as a hard case … Long met his death in a bush accident, by a tree falling on him. Although he can be said to have "died in harness," so far as his little job of official hangman is concerned, it is a fact that his whims and caprices were getting him in bad odour with the authorities. It appears that he had come to regard himself as a specialist in his gruesome profession, and began to give himself airs. It is on record that on the morning of one of the last executions at which he officiated, he nearly upset the arrangements by demanding that he be paid his £25 fee immediately after the hanging. In vain it was explained by the sheriff that a voucher would have to be sent to Wellington and put through the usual channel. Long would have no red tape or Government circumlocution. It was a case of "cash down or no hanging," and in despair the sheriff appeased Long by paying the amount out of his own pocket and recovering it from the Government later. Many other curious matters could be written about the subject of hangmen and hangings, but the exigencies of space will not permit.

(NZ Truth 26 June 1920)

Execution of William Woodgate:
In this instance, one Sam Chandler, who had been chosen as the executioner, was run out of town before the first scheduled day of execution. The authorities tried obtaining someone else from Wellington, tying up the telegraph line until midnight, by one report.

Finally, they found a replacement.
“We shall not say how or by what means a person was discovered who was willing to take the place vacated by one who undoubtedly undertook to do the duty. Suffice it to say that the police or somebody did discover such a person, and that in the early morning the Sheriff, accompanied by the Inspector of Police, drove through again to Picton …

“At 7.15 a.m. the Hinemoa arrived from Wellington being manned with Armed Constabulary, and bringing Detective Farrell and the man alluded to. But we are given to understand that the Captain ranks as Inspector the Chief mate as Sub-Inspector, and all the men as privates in the Armed Constabulary force. These escorted the Detective and his travelling companion to the gaol, and back again. There was considerable speculation in Picton as to who the gentleman was who performed the loathsome duty, and it was confidently asserted that he had come from Nelson, but we have reason to believe that he was a swagsman, who came into Blenheim on Wednesday from the southward, and offered his services, which were accepted as before recorded. He stated that he had been in the navy as a seaman, and boasted of having served as an artilleryman at the time of the Indian Mutiny, when he "slung them up in dozens." Soon after 10 a.m., the gaoler let him out at the back of the gaol, and he succeeded by making his way quietly and quite unobserved along the line, in getting down to the Hinemoa at the wharf, which steamed away at once as soon as he came aboard, arid before the Pictonians were aware of the circumstance.”
(Marlborough Express, 27 January 1877)

It was in 1877 that Long made his debut as a hangman in this colony. In that year, Woodgate was under sentence of death at Blenheim, and great difficulty was experienced an finding a man to undertake the execution. Detective O'Farrell, of Wellington, was entrusted with the task of finding a hangman. However, the night before the execution was to take place, no word having been received at Blenheim, from Wellington, the sheriff became very anxious, and as he knew that the steamer from the Empire City could not reach Picton before the time fixed for the execution, he began to look out for a substitute. Just at this time, Long, who had been in Blenheim looking for work, presented himself at the gaol and announcing that he had had considerable experience with executions in India, applied for the job of hanging Woodgate. His services were at once accepted, and at 8 o’clock the following morning successfully carred out the task he had undertaken. A couple of hours later Detective O'Farrell arrived from Wellington with the man he had secured for the work, only to find that the execution had been carried out, and the inquest held.

(Christchurch Star, 28 August 1901)

Execution of Minnie Dean

The Hangman.— Thus the Auckland Observer : — Tom Long, or " Long Tom," the executioner, has returned North after his recent trip to Invercargill, by the Manapouri. Although a Government official, Thomas modestly travelled steerage. He had to put up with a good deal of chaff from his fellow passengers. "You may chaff," he told them, "but it isn't everybody who can make £25 in five minutes." He referred with professional pride to the hanging of Mrs Dean as "a beautiful job." Tom's face is full of contrasts. His nose is a fiery red, reminding one of the tail lights on a guard's van, while his moustache is as white as milk.
(Marlborough Express, 16 September 1895)

On August 12, 1895, at Invercargill, Minnie Dean, the notorious baby farmer, was hung, she being the only woman in the history of New Zealand to suffer capital punishment, and Tom Long was engaged to carry out the grisly task. Feeling ran high in the country as to the propriety of hanging a woman, but every channel of reprieve had failed — even that common circumstance of civilised law which refuses to put to death a creature who in dying would not die alone, who bears within a second principle of "life." Minnie Dean's only hope was if she could plead she was "quick with child," and this she could not do.

It was deemed advisable by the authorities to take certain precautions in regard to Long, the hangman, and he was smuggled into Invercargill gaol a week before the date fixed for the hanging, and kept there. Everything seemed to be going on all right. Long, by reason of his enforced incarceration, had been kept strictly sober, but on the fatal morning of August 12, when the head warder knocked Long up at an early hour, and reminded him that the time had arrived for him to enter the condemned cell and perform the awful preliminaries, Tom went on strike. The head gaoler was promptly communicated with and an attempt was made to cajole Long into keeping the terms of his contract with the State. At last they found a weak spot in the recalcitrant hangman's armour and he announced that he would "carry on," providing he was allowed to settle as much whisky as he felt constrained to drink.

It was then discovered to the gaoler's horror that there wasn't a "spot" of whisky in the prison, and the predicament was explained to the hang-fire hangman. Tom, with a sly look at the gaoler and sheriff, folded his arms and said,
The gaoler then recollected that a bottle of brandy, which was kept for medicinal purposes, was on the premises, and he suggested to Thomas the obdurate, that perhaps brandy would fill the bill. "Very well, bring out your brandy," said Long . When it arrived, he helped himself to a "long beer" glass full of raw spirit. This he gulped down, smacked his lips, and, turning to the sheriff, said, "Now, if you like, I will hang twenty women."

The execution of Minnie Dean then proceeded without further hitch, but it is worthy of note that when the unfortunate, standing on the fatal trapdoor which was so soon to open under her and hurl her to her doom, said good-bye to the officiating clergyman and prison officials, Long stepped forward and said to her, "Won't you shake hands with me, ma'am? I am the hangman, ma'am. I am only doing my duty!" The woman took the hangman's hand in hers and pressed it. Then a short minute later, as she uttered the words, "O, God, let me not suffer," the self-same hand she had clasped in forgiveness withdrew the bolt, which launched her into the unknown.

After it was all over, the police smuggled Tom Long aboard a north-going train, but it hadn't stopped at many wayside stations before Long the hangman was very drunk. During the rest of the journey north he promenaded the train selling souvenirs of the woman he had just hanged, in the shape of her alleged shoes. By the number of old shoes Long produced it would appear that the deceased woman either had a very extensive wardrobe, or that Long's souvenirs were spurious.

(NZ Truth 26 June 1920)

Execution of Frank Philpott

Frank Philpott, alias Stanhope, was hanged at the Terrace gaol at 8 o'clock this morning, for the murder of his mate, Ernest Alfred Hawthorn, at Silverstream, on September the 7th last … Tom Long, the executioner, then arranged the rope, and Philpott stood firm. There was a slight increase of color in his face, and it was evident he keenly realised his position, but he showed no signs of breaking down and met his fate manfully. The executioner, curiously, forgot to draw on his cap till reminded by the gaoler, and as he stepped forward to do so, Philpott closed his eyes. When the drop fell death was instantaneous.

(Marlborough Express 23 March 1898)

Execution of Alexander McLean

As soon as it was known that the Cabinet had decided that the sentence was not to be interfered with, the officials put themselves in communication with Tom Long, who for many years has acted as common executioner for New Zealand. He was found working in the country a few miles from Wanganui, and was sent down to Wellington, where an official was to meet him at the train. Long, however, got off the carriage on the opposite side of the station, and eluding the vigilance of the officer,-got away into the town. The officials were in a dilemma, as although they were assured that he had been seen on the train, they were afraid that he had either fallen off the carriage or had got off at a wayside station. As it had been arranged that he should go south the same night with the gallows which was already on board the steamer, they were placed in a very awkward fix. However, later in the evening, Long was discovered in the town by a policeman, and was escorted on board the Tarawera just before she sailed. It had been rumoured in Lyttelton that Long was on board the Tarawera, and as the passengers left the boat on her arrival yesterday morning, they were keenly scrutinised by a knot of persons who had gathered on the wharf, anxious to get a glimpse of the hangman. Several of the passengers were pointed out as being very likely-looking specimens, and one or two of the onlookers persisted in recognising a Government official in quite another department as the man they were looking for. Only very few persons suspected that the undersized, gray-haired man who walked with a decided limp, was the executioner. Such, however, proved to be the case, and it was not until he had disappeared within the stone-walls of Lyttelton gaol that many believed that they had actually beheld the object of their search. Long has now had some little experience, having carried out the dread sentence on seventeen murderers in different parts of the colony.

(NZ Truth 26 June 1920)

Steven John Smart
Executed: Tahi Kaka (Auckland) 21 June 1911

Tom Long's successor was a young married man, whose name was officially given as Sharp [sic]. He was one of thirteen applicants. I am under the impression that, realising the stigma he was placing on his four children by doing such work he gave up the position. Therefore, I refrain from publishing his proper name now. He was a bricklayer employed by the Wellington City Council at the time, and when his work-mates found out that he had officiated as hangman they resented working any longer with him. It transpired that he had invented an excuse to obtain leave of absence from the corporation; stating that he desired to visit a dying uncle at New Plymouth, whereas he had really gone to Auckland to quietly earn the fee of £25 for hanging the Maori. He was discharged from the Council employ, not for hanging a man, but for having obtained leave of absence by telling a falsehood. Although the father of four children he was probably not over 27 years of age. He was rather undersized, not over 5ft. 7in., weighing about 9st. His left forearm was tattoed down on to the back of his hand, depicting a rather artistic figure of a girl in the nude. Probably he had been in the navy, too. When asked why he had applied for the hangman's job, he said, "Oh, I thought it was an easy way of making twenty-five quid." He had applied for a similar position in Sydney. So, it would appear that there was more about it than the fee to fascinate him. There's no accounting for tastes.

(NZ Truth 17 July 1920)

Unknown farmer
Executed: Alfred Mortram Biddle (Lyttleton) 13 December 1913
Executed: Arthur Rottman (Wellington) 18 March 1915
Executed: Frank Edward Bennier (Wellington) 19 January 1918
Executed: Dennis Gunn (Auckland) 22 June 1920

I am not aware of the identity of the man who hanged Dennis Gunn, but I understand he also dispatched four other men — Biddle (Canterbury), Rottman (Wellington), Bennier (Wellington) and Eggers (Canterbury). He is a farmer, working his own property, and probably finds the occasional fee of £25 handy to pay off the mortgage or for some other purpose.

(NZ Truth 17 July 1920)

No gambling on the train, please

Image from Wikipedia.

From NZ Herald 28 March 1918.

Three Maoris, Mita Karaka, Whaka Houkura and T Kirkwood ([represented by] Mr. A E Skelton) were charged in the Police Court before Mr F V Fraser, SM, yesterday with gambling in a railway carriage by playing cards for money.

Guard Foster said the Maoris were seated together in the carriage with a ug over their knees playing euchre. He heard the jingle of money, and gave them a warning. When he returned to the carriage they were still playing, and 3s was on the rug. Witness seized the money and took their names and addresses. Subsequently two of the Maoris tried to bribe him not to go any further with the matter. 

Defendants admitted playing cards, but not for money, and said that the 3s on the rug was money which Karaka had paid Kirkwood for buying magazines. They denied that they attempted to bribe the guard.

The charge was dismissed.

I hope they got the 3s back ...

Monday, January 3, 2011

NZ Truth: The Rise and Fall of the People's Paper

A book I picked up yesterday at Whitcoull's in Brown's Bay is Redmer Yska's new work (published around November last year) on the history of the NZ Truth newspaper. I'm reading it at the moment, and I have to say I'm hooked. Yska's style is easy to follow, and through the story of the country's first tabloid (originating via John Norton, connected with the Truth in Sydney as well as the Bulletin) the reader comes across New Zealand's multi-textured quilt of social history set against scandal, racism, union struggle, political machinations, and more.

I didn't know that the entirity of the record of the first year of publication of the NZ Truth is missing. It began in 1905, but all copies of that year are gone, not even held in the National Library (their Papers Past coverage begins in 1906). Yska also talks about the setting up of the United Press Association (later NZPA) in the late 19th century, and the £1000 entrance fee for belonging to the association in 1894 (as Yska says in the book, that's a whopping $170,000 today).

Buy it or borrow it -- I thoroughly recommend that you have a read of this example of jourmalism history.

Murals in a Brown's Bay summer

Passing through Brown's Bay, part of the North Shore's East Coast Bays, I found a couple of murals. First, this one -- it's so long, I missed taking a shot of the far end (at right) which had a cabbage tree on it. I love the almost dreamy watercolour feel to this one.

But, I also found a heritage mural, the Beach Front Store, Manly Esplanade in Brown's Bay, 1949. Talking with Bill Ellis later yesterday afternoon, he said that the store dated from the early 1940s. The mural was sponsored by the local business association.

Sunday, January 2, 2011

Counting heads in Auckland and Thames

I've heard a piece of information which has had me puzzling for some time now. Every so often, it pops up again, the way urban legends tend to do so, and those repeating it are usually convinced it is true. It is best summed up by this statement in Wikipedia:
“Towards the end of the last century Thames was the largest centre of population in New Zealand with 18,000 inhabitants and well over 100 hotels and three theatres [in] 1868. For a while it was thought it would replace Auckland as the major town in the area.”

Hmm. Really? I took a look at some of the census figures available via Papers Past for the period 1868 to 1891.

Auckland City & Suburbs 17606
Thames goldfield 2439

City of Auckland (West & East, inc. Newton & Parnell) 17221
Thames 11950

City of Auckland (West & East, inc. Newton & Parnell) 21803
Thames 12271

Auckland City & Suburbs 27000 approx.
Thames (electorate) 12516

Auckland City & Suburbs 38735
Thames electorate 12272

Auckland and Suburbs 39826
Thames electorate 9498

City of Auckland (alone) 30006
Thames Borough 4662

So, where does this all come from, the belief that at one stage during the 19th century, Thames was the largest centre of population in the country (and supposedly out-stripping Auckland)? I think the key is in a number mentioned both by the latter day Wiki article, and by the following from 1964: 18,000.

“Thames expanded explosively and by mid-1868 had a peak population estimated at 18,000. Hammering and sawing went on night and day, as ‘cloth houses’ on frames were replaced by wooden ones from the abundant nearby kauri. Coromandel sawmillers established themselves quickly and from the same area came gold-prospecting machinery.”

A M Isdale BA, "The History of Gold Mining on the River Thames",  Ohinemuri Regional History Journal 1, June 1964

An estimated figure of 18,000 -- so, where did that come from? Apparently from one of the sources used by A M Isdale in 1964, E M Wayte's Thames Miner's Guide from 1868.

The population of the Thames Gold Fields cannot be less than 18,000 souls, men, women, and children. There are upwards of 11,000 miner's rights issued, but many persons who hold shares do not reside upon the diggings.
But, as you'll see above, that doesn't quite tally with the reported census figures for the goldfields for that year. There is another piece of contemporary information, well-publicised in the newspapers of the time.

This, being the period of the anniversary of the Thames goldfield, Mr. O'Keeffe deemed it important to place upon record a few statistics showing its progress during the past year …These steamers, with a single exception, have been built at the port of Auckland, entirely of New Zealand material. Since the 14th of February to the 31st July last, these steamers have conveyed to the Thames 18,000 passengers, and from the Thames 14,000 leaving a margin of 4,000 in favour of the goldfield.
 (Southern Cross, 29 August 1868)

The "fact" doesn't appear to be backed up by contemporary statistics or newspapers reports, and seems based on a wild shot in the dark type of guess. At this stage, I'd say it was optimistic fancy for the time, rather than fact.

Update 3 January 2011: Found this in the Appendices to the Journals of the House of Representatives, from 1871.
The returns from the Thames and Coromandel Gold Fields accompanying this Report will be found on inspection much more complete than those laid before the House of Representatives last year. Considerable care has been taken to bring them as near as possible up to the close of the year ending 30th June. The year just closed promised at its commencement to be one of depression, especially on that portion of the Gold Fields situated at the Thames. A large area of ground had been abandoned, the results being the loss of employment to numbers of working miners, the cessation of crushing operations, and general slackness of trade in the townships. The number of miners' rights issued in the year 1870 was only (on the Thames) 3,296, while in 1869 there were issued 9,435, and in 186S there were 11,585. The population of the field also decreased. As near as could be ascertained, in January, 1870, the population on the gold fields was approaching 15,000, while the census taken in January, 1871, of the whole electoral district of Thames, does not much exceed 12,000. The cause of the depression thus briefly referred to is not far to seek. It is to be found in the wholesale taking up of supposed auriferous country, in the hope of selling it for large sums of money, and the formation of Companies based on value utterly fallacious, the country being entirely unproved, or rather unprospected. 
 Bolding mine. From "Further Reports on the Goldfields of New Zealand", G-31, AJofHR, 1871

Saturday, January 1, 2011

In the shadow of the bridge

Updated (and corrected) 5 January 2016.

This last lot of gravesites in the Wesleyan section are both on the border of the Anglican section and were either very close to or completely in the way of the second (and present) Grafton Bridge as it was being constructed, completed 1910. Some graves, as I understand, were relocated, but nowhere near as many as had to be relocated for the motorway 50-60 years later. Still, the presence of the bridge dominates this part of Symonds Street Cemetery.

Hopefully Sandy stops by and recognises this (above and below) -- she did a great post on her blog about the sad fate of Emily Keeling back in March 2010. Since then, kind folks have been by and repaired Emily's stone -- but the rest of the gravesite is crumbling.

This one (above) is the shattered stone for two of John Gittos' children, Laura Ann (died 16 January 1872 aged 2 years) and Ernest William (died 26 January 1879 aged 1 year 7 months). Their deaths was during the time that John Gittos was with his father and brothers running the Gittos Tannery at Avondale

This one is so badly smashed. it would take careful work with the cemetery plans and what remains of transcriptions to find out who's here.

This one is truly in the shadow of the Grafton Bridge; shifted on its base, surrounded by construction bare clays instead of the leaves and plants of the rest of the cemetery.

It actually serves to mark a maritime tragedy which was a bit of a challenge to track down, especially with the false lead of the date at the bottom: 8 October 1890. That wasn't when Mrs Isabella Gibson Henderson, wife of Henry Henderson, along with her infant son, drowned off the steamer Mararoa. It happened two years earlier.

The Mararoa, which left Auckland at 6 p.m. on October 3, arrived last night. On Sunday, while approaching the coast, she encountered a terrific gale with fearful sea, which continued till yesterday. At half-past 3 in the afternoon she was suddenly struck by an enormous wave of unusual magnitude, which broke on board with disastrous results. The passengers on the hurricane deck had no warning, and being unable to escape were hurled in all directions. Mrs Henderson (a steerage passenger) and her infant child were carried overboard without any chance of help, and drowned. Two other steerage passengers (Mr White and Mr Herbert) each had his leg broken, and one of the seamen named Jones also had his leg fractured. Another child of Mrs Henderson was fortunately caught by the rail, and hung suspended there until the vessel righted when it was rescued. Several other persons received severe bruises.

(Per United Phess Association.) Auckland, October 9. Mrs Henderson, the lady who was drowned trom the Mararoa, was the wife of Mr H Henderson who recently left Auckland for Ballarat where he is now carrying on business. Mrs Henderson left with her three children in the Mararoa last week in order to join her husband.

 (Otago Daily Times, 10 October 1888)

I am very thankful that the National Library of Australia have put their newspapers online, like those at our own National Library. I couldn't find a death registration for Mrs Henderson, so figured that she hadn't died here -- chances are, the drowning happened in Australian waters, as the Mararoa piled between the colonies of New Zealand and Victoria at the time. A search at Trove, and there it was.

The tragedy was all over the newspapers here at the time.

From inquiries we have made there appears to be very little doubt that the lady who met with her death under the sad circumstances narrated in the cablegram was a former resident of Auckland. She was the wife of Mr Henry Henderson, an upholsterer in Auckland, who recently proceeded to Ballarat, where he is now carrying on business. Mrs Henderson left with her three children in the Mararoa last week in order to join her husband. She is well-known in Auckland, and prior to her marriage was a Miss Froude, her father being Mr David Froude, of Surrey Hills. Mr Henry Henderson is a brother of Mr John Henderson, painter, of Wyndham-street. The hurricance deck on the Mararoa runs the full length of the vessel, and the second cabin is situated in the after part. None of the saloon passengers sustained any injury.

(Te Aroha News 13 October 1888)

According to this site, Isabella was named after her grandmother, Isabella Gibson, David Froude's mother. David Froude was an Auckland tailor by trade, born in Belfast, Ireland 17 February 1830, and died 26 August 1912. Even that family history site has the wrong date for Isabella's death.

And then there is the unforunate William James Green, who died 7 May 1873.
Auckland, April 29. Mr Green, clerk in the New Zealand Bank, was examining one of Pramton's revolvers in the bank last night, when it went off, lodging the bullet in his left breast, where it still remains. He is still living, but unable to be removed from the bank.

(Christchurch Star 30 April 1873)

While Mr Green, a clerk in the Bank of New Zealand, Auckland, was examining a revolver in the public room of the bank the other day, it accidentally went off, the ball entering the left side near the lower part of the sternum, cutting through the pectoral muscles in a slanting direciion towards the armpit. The bullet, it would appear, had steered clear of the lungs, as the wounded man breathed freely for hours after the accident took place. Death, however, was the result. Mr Green was an acccountant in the Union Bank, Dunedin, in the year 1866. His death, will be regretted by many friends who knew him well.

(Bruce Herald, 23 May 1873)

Dominated by the Grafton Bridge, here lies Rev Thomas Buddle.


The death is announced to-day of this gentleman, who had a large number of friends in Nelson, and who was sincerely respected by many who could not claim the privilege of friendship. He commenced his ministry in the Wesleyan Church in 1836, in Bishop Auckland, England, and very shortly afterwards came out to New Zealand, was elected President of the Australasian Conference in 1863, and first President of the New Zealand Conference in 1864. The early years of his ministry in New Zealand were devoted to Maori work in the Auckland district, but in 1866 he was removed from this sphere of usefulness to Christchurch, and was appointed Chairman of the Canterbury district. Subsequently he was stationed at Wellington and Nelson, and while a resident at the former place he was appointed a member of the University Senate, which he resigned upon removal to Auckland in 1874, when he was appointed Principal of the Wesley College at Three Kings, an office which he continued to hold until the sitting of the Conference of 1882 when he retired as a supernumerary. This was made the occasion of the Conference placing on record their sense of the invaluable services he had rendered, which they did in the following resolution : — " That the Conference having heard the request of the Rev. T. Buddie, to be permitted to retire from the full work of the Ministry, accedes thereto with regret. The Conference takes the opportunity of referring to the efficient services rendered to the Church of Christ by Mr Buddle during the long period of forty-seven years. It recognises the ability and fidelity with which he has discharged the multifarious duties that have been assigned him. It magnifies the grace of God whereby His servant has been enabled to occupy and sustain the highest offices in the Australasian Wesleyan Methodist Church. It records its gratitude to the Father of mercies for having spared him to see the enlargement and prosperity of the Church in New Zealand, with the begining of which he was so closely identified. It acknowledges with thankfulness to God the devotedness of his labours, both among the Maoris and English speaking population, these labours having been abundantly owned of God in the salvation of many souls. The Conference rejoices in the high honour that has been conferred upon Mr Buddle, in the presence of all the people, by the Government, as shown by the marks of distinction put upon him in recognition of his knowledge and wisdom in the affairs of State. Now that necessity is laid upon Father Buddle to ask for retirement, the members of the Conference unite in praying that the Lord Jesus Christ, who has guided, instructed, and blessed His servant in the past, will bless him yet more abundantly in the future, and that in the quiet happy evening of a well-spent life, both he and Mrs Buddle (who has been the devoted partner of his life and labors) may realize the richest fulfilment of the great and precious promises, which are to them and to their children.''

(Nelson Evening Mail, 26 June 1883)

What is left of William Phillipps' gravestone. According to the library's cemetery database:

The early 1880s map of the Wesleyan section has two Phillips graves at 4 C 153 and 4 C 154. According to the late 1950's tombstone transcriptions William Phillipps died 14 August 1863 aged 66 years and his wife Charlotte Phillips died 12 September 1868 aged 65 years.
Early 1900s repairs to the Wesleyan section refer to William Phillips, and describe the grave with an "iron railling 2 feet 8 inches high on masonry, headstone in centre 12 inches from West end".
Well, not any more.

Two more bridge construction survivors, those for the Culpan family.

And this one for Charles Hedgcock, died 1868, and Elizabeth, 1875.

Here's one of the gravesites which was probably in the way of work on the bridge.

Finally, the last resting place of Dr. Richard Day.

We regret to record in our obituary column the decease of an old and well-known colonist, Dr. Day. The deceased gentleman was one of the early settlers in the Hokianga district in 1840. From thence he removed to Auckland on the outbreak of the Heke war. For many years he filled the appointment, under the Provincial and General Governments, of public vaccinator, and bore a high reputation for skill and scientific attainments in the practice of his profession.

Of late years the growing infirmities of age caused him to retire from practice and from taking an active part in the management of the public institutions of the city with which his name had been so long identified. He passed away peacefully yesterday morning, having more than fulfilled the allotted span of three score and ten, at the residence of his friend Rev John Hobbs, of whose family he had been an esteemed member for nearly half a century.

(NZ Herald, 24 October 1879)

In 1866 he was Chairman of the Central Board of Vaccination for the Aborigines of New Zealand. It seems he had a coat of arms conferred upon him just four years before he died. Today, beside his grave, under the bridge, part of the homeless community of Auckland dosses down each night. The mattress was just to the left out of the photo shot. No one was home at the time.

Missionaries in the ferns

When the first of this set of graves was dug here, that of Rev Cort Henry Schnackenberg in 1880, this would have been a peaceful part of the slope down to the bottom of Grafton Gully. Native bush and bird song all around, fitting for the last resting place of those who laboured as missionaries for years in the back blocks of this country's early days. Today, of course, on the other side of the overgrowth below is the motorway. How times change.

From left: the graves of Edward Allen, Rev Schnackenberg, George Sargent Jakins and Elizabeth Jakins, Rev Hobbs, and Rev Warren.

It is with feelings of regret we record in our obituary columns this morning the death of the Rev John Hobbs, the oldest Wesleyan missionary in New Zealand, or the Australasian group, and who was a contemporary and fellow-worker in the New Zealand mission field with the Venerable Samuel Marsden, Bishop Williams, Bishop Selwyn, and others who have passed away to their reward. He died last evening at seven o’clock, at the advanced age of 84. Some particulars concerning a career so eventful will be interesting to our readers: --

The Rev John Hobbs was the son of Richard and Elizabeth Hobbs, and born February 21 1800 at St Peter’s, Isle of Thanet, in Kent. His father (who was a local preacher, under John Wesley) was in the building trade, combined with coach-building, and had a large business in which the subject of this memoir was brought up. The knowledge thus acquired proved of great value to him in his mission life. While so engaged in business he also fulfilled the duties of a Wesleyan local preacher.

At the age of 22 the subject of this notice resolved to go to Tasmania, having a strong desire to be of service in his Master’s cause among the convicts in that then penal colony. Soon after his arrival in Tasmania the Revs Nathaniel Turner and Carvoss urged him to write home and offer his services to the Wesleyan Missionary Society. During the interval of hearing from the Society he went to Sydney, where he met the Rev Samuel Marsden who also offered to employ him at once in the Church Missionary Society work if he would go with him to New Zealand, which offer he would have accepted but for being in correspondence with the Wesleyan Missionary Society as well as his father’s parting words. When he told Mr Marsden his determination, that gentleman characteristically replied: “Never mind who you go with, but go.”

On 3rd August 1823, Mr Hobbs sailed from Sydney for New Zealand, in the ship Brampton with Mr Marsden (who was the agent of the Church Missionary Society), the late Archdeacon Henry Williams, and the Rev Nathaniel Turner, a missionary of the Wesleyan Missionary Society. He arrived at the Bay of Islands the same month, and Mr Turner and Mr Hobbs went to Whangaroa to labour. After the destruction of the Mission Station in 1827 by the natives who plundered their house and burnt it, and where they only escaped with their lives through the late chief Patuone taking them under his protection, Mr Hobbs returned to Sydney, where he married Miss Broggreff, who came out from Ramsgate to join him.

The young couple then returned to New Zealand, and went to Hokianga. It was at this station that Patuone and Waka Nene became his true and faithful friends, and remained so till they died. In 1833 Mr Hobbs requested the Home Committee to remove him, and he was directed to go to the Friendly Islands [Tonga] where he speedily acquired the language, took charge of the mission printing press, and soon became quite expert in printing and translating mission publications. Mrs Hobbs’ health, however, soon failed, and a change was ordered by a medical man as the only hope he could hold out and he recommended that they should go to Tasmania.

The whaling ship in which they took passage for Tasmania proved to be in a very leaky condition, and the captain put into the Bay of Islands where the ship was condemned as unseaworthy and beached. Mr Turner, then at Hokianga, having heard of the arrival of Mr Hobbs at the Bay hastened across and requested Mr Hobbs to take charge of the Mission Station then under his care, which he accordingly agreed to do. Mr Hobbs’ previous knowledge of the Maoris and their language proved valuable to the Church, and he soon employed his talent in various departments of Mission labour building houses and boats and in translating and printing the Scriptures in Maori – a work in which he was assisted by Abraham Taonui, a chief of the Ngapuhi, lately deceased.

Mr Hobbs had a more than ordinary attachment to his Queen and country, and the Government. It is not too much to say that it was mainly due to his influence for good amongst the Ngapuhi that Tamati Waka Nene, Mohi Tawhai and Eruera Putuone came out so staunchly as allies at the time of the colony’s peril, when Hone Heke declared war and sacked Kororareka (now called Russell). His services were often asked and freely given to the Government when they had any important questions in hand with the natives. Mr Hobbs acted as interpreter to Governor Hobson when he went over to Hokianga to get the Treaty of Waitangi signed by the Ngapuhi. The loyal influence of the Wesleyan mission in Hokianga was of infinite value to the authorities in those days, and was freely acknowledged by the Government.

Mr Hobbs was frequently weeks away at a time visiting the natives in various parts of the colony. When heard of the untimely death of the Rev John Bumby by the upsetting of a canoe in crossing the Waitemata from Rangitoto to the North Shore, he started off at once overland from Hokianga to Auckland, in the vain hope of recovering the body which, however, was never recovered.

In 1848 Mr Hobbs was appointed to commence a Wesleyan station in the Upper Whanganui district and a vessel, the Harriet Leathart, was chartered for the purpose of conveying the Rev G Stannard and family and the Rev W Kirk and wife to their new scene of labour. The voyage proved to be a disastrous one, the vessel being stranded on the West Coast, near Whanganui, after a most providential escape from being cast on the rocky coast adjacent. Owing to Mr Hobbs being all night exposed to the winds and waves, lashed to the rigging, he became afflicted with almost total deafness which caused his retirement from active work long before his own wishes would have permitted him doing so.

In 1855 he removed with his family to Auckland and spent a year at the Three Kings Institution, but his loss of hearing so much interfered with his duties that he was compelled to retire into private life, and has since resided in Auckland where he has enjoyed the friendship of many of his early associates in mission work.

His early association with the founders of the Church Mission and the sympathy and help given by them in all times of need, greatly endeared them to him and many of his dying words referred to the exciting times of their early mission labours together. Telegrams from these friends of his youth, in his last illness, testified their sympathy for their “brother John”, as he was familiarly styled. The Rev James Walls, Thomas Buddle, and Alexander Reid, old workers in the Maori mission field, and other clergymen have visited him in his last illness and amongst other friends Bishop and Mrs Cowie. Our space will not admit of our referring at length to his mission labours, but no doubt at the fitting time some of his old fellow co-workers in the mission field will fulfil the duty of recounting them.

His last illness proved tedious and painful. Sometimes he said he feared patience had not yet had “her perfect work”, but his mind was kept in perfect peace. Kind messages to friends and to young people in whose welfare he was interested were on his lips to the last. When asked some questions as to his past career, he said, “I do not desire any praise. God knows I have done my poor best, but having done all, I have been an unprofitable servant.” His memory will be dear to many in England, America, Australia, Tonga, and in New Zealand.

Mr Hobbs never acquired any property worth speaking about. His legacy to his children is the memory of a life of strict integrity, devoted to the service of the Master whom he loved. His aged partner survives him, aged 85. They celebrated their “golden wedding” some six years ago. Of his ten children seven survive, two sons and five daughters. The former are Mr Richard Hobbs, MHR for the Bay of Islands and Mangonui, and Mr Edward Hobbs, both of Pokeno. Of the daughters two are married to Wesleyan clergymen – the Rev W Kirk of Wellington, and the Rev W Gittos of Kaipara, the others being Mrs Wilcox of Wellington, whose husband is deceased, Mrs James Bloomfield, and Mrs G. S. Jakins, of Ponsonby.

He leaves also thirty grandchildren and six great-grandchildren. Mr Hobbs left a written request, signed by himself and Mrs Hobbs, to the effect that his funeral was to be as plain and simple as possible, and without the usual embellishment of mourning.

The funeral will take place on Wednesday, leaving the Pitt-street Wesleyan Church at 3 o’clock. There will be a short mortuary service in the Church, commencing at 2.30.
(NZ Herald 25 June 1883)

There's more on Rev Hobbs here, and here.

Rev Hobbs' daughter Elizabeth (1842-1921), along with her husband George Sargent Jakins (1839-1928), are buried next to him. According to what's available via Paper's Past, George S Jakins arrived in Auckland from London on the Nourmahaul in 1859. He married Eliza Hobbs at Rev. Hobbs' residence at Beresford Street in Auckland 1 May 1862. He was a licensed Custom House Agent by February 1863, and had his headquarters on Queen Street the following year. In 1865 he entered into partnership with Samuel John Edmonds, merchants, under the name Edmonds & Jakins. The family sold up their Wellington Street home that year and sailed for Melbourne. He came back in 1866 and set himself up as an importer and commission agent on Queen Street Wharf. The firm of Edmonds & Jakins apparently continued through to February 1867, when it was wound up., Jakins consigning debts to Edmonds. Another partnership, with Henry Palmer of Mahurangi, was dissolved in April 1867. This, however, doesn't appear to have been an amicable parting of the ways.

Henry Palmer was charged by G S Jakins with having, on Saturday, 19th inst., at Mahurangi, assaulted him by striking him several blows with his clenched fist. Mr J B Russell appeared for complainant; Mr. Beveridge for defendant. G S Jakins deposed: I reside at Mahurangi. On 20th October, I went to Palmer at the mills to obtain some money, £9 odd, received by him. He admitted having received the money, and wished to deduct £5. I told him I could not let him off. He gave me several blows with his clenched fist. I ran away from him to a man named Brown, a special constable. He followed me, and struck me again in the mill and outside the premises. I gave him no provocation except by saying that he had got off  "jolly easy," when he asked the £5 to be deducted from the money he had received.

Cross-examined : He did not say he had been taken advantage of by me and my brother. I did not tell him he was a great fool not to go to the Insolvency Court to be white-washed, before he struck me. We were perfectly friendly until I said, "You've got off jolly easy." When he struck me I got off as soon as I could. I did not strike in return. I ran upstairs, the nearest way to get out of the mill. Palmer told me to leave the mill. Force was used to put me out of the mill. Palmer is in the occupation of the mill, which I believe belonged to Mr. Hurst. Mr. Wood put me out of the mill. I did not use threats towards him.

Re-examined : I expected Brown to have taken Palmer in charge. That was why I did not leave the mill when asked to do so, after he had assaulted me. He followed me outside the mill and beat me.

John B Brown deposed : I  am a special constable living at Mahurangi. I was in Palmer's employment on 20th October. I recollect Jakins coming into the mill. Jakins came upstairs, and wished Palmer to be taken in charge. I went as soon as I could, and found Jakins outside the mill. I saw a very slight blow struck outside the mill by Palmer. When I had hold of Palmer he desisted. I did not see Jakins resist Palmer in any way.

Cross-examined: I did not hear Palmer order Jakins out of the mill. Wood put Jakins out of the mill. The proper way to get out of the mill would be by going downstairs and going out by the entrance door. Jakins did not do so. This closed the complainant's case.

W J Wood deposed : I saw Jakins coming into the mill on the occasion referred in question. He came running upstairs, when I heard Palmer order him to leave the mill. He did not go. I put him out. I used force to put him out. I saw Palmer strike Jakins on the back. It was not a severe blow. He had ordered him out previously. His object for striking Jakins was to put him out.

Cross-examined: It was to save him from being knocked against the ironwork that I put Jakins out. I did not hear any angry discussion.

This closed the evidence. His Worship regretted that the parties had not endeavoured to settle the matter without the intervention of the Court. There was no doubt an assault had been committed. There was clearly provocation on the part of the plaintiff. He inflicted a fine on defendant of 40s. and costs.
(Southern Cross 31 October 1867)

By October 1868, Jakins was selling "Whelpton's Vegetable Pills" and stone lime from his Produce Stores at Durham Street. The following year, he becoming involved as a shareholder and director of mining companies. In July 1870, another partnership, this time with E D Willcox. By 1879, the Jakins & Willcox store had shifted to Custom Street, then the partnership dissolved in the 1880s and Jakins was again in business on his own. By 1890, he was in Sydney, selling produce in Sussex Street. He returned to New Zealand and settled in Christchurch in 1891. Is he the same G S Jakins who operated the Belfast Dairy Factory in Canterbury in 1895? It appears he was a produce merchant in Christchurch in 1901. By 1921, when Elizabeth died, they were living in Parnell.

I couldn't find an obituary for Rev John Warren so, as with G S Jakins, I pulled together what I could from Papers Past.

He arrived in New Zealand in 1838, serving in the Hokianga by the late 1840s. By the late 1850s he was down near Nelson and the Wairau area.

The Rev. J. Warren.—This gentleman met the office bearers of the Wesleyan Church for the last time on Monday last, at their usual quarterly meeting, when the following resolution was adopted.- Proposed by Mr. Hough and resolved—" That the thanks of this meeting are justly due, and are hereby cordially presented to our faithful and beloved pastor, the Rev. John Warren, for his instructive and efficient ministry, and for the zeal, ability, and discretion with which he has fulfilled the duties of Superintendent of the circuit, for the space of five years. …" Mr. Warren will preach to the congregation on Sunday next for the last time, alter which the pulpit will be occupied by the stationed minister from the Hutt, the Rev. Mr. Innes, and in the Waimea by the Rev. Mr. Moorhouse.

(Colonist, 30 March 1860)

He was in the Wellington area until 1862, then he moved to Auckland, where he served at the High Street Wesleyan Chapel and lectured on the Maori at the Oddfellow’s Hall.

In 1863, in one such lecture to the YMCA in Auckland, he came out fully in favour of the policy of confiscation of Maori land in the event of rebellion against the Queen.

I believe the way in which British supremacy could be most speedily established, and with least loss of life, would be at once to declare a district of country already gone for ever to the Queen in consequence of native rebellion and a proclamation that Maori sovereignty would be unhesitatingly put down, and that all natives found in arms after a certain date would be declared the Queen's enemies, and to have forfeited all right and title to land. Some will say that would be to exterminate the natives because it is well known that such is their attachment to the land, that they will die to a man in defence of it. We deny that this is well known, and we assert the contrary of this. No doubt the natives are exceedingly covetous about land, and this is the reason why they have been continually fighting about it. That they will to any extent die in defence of land is utterly contrary to the history of the Maori people.

I have seen many quarrels about land, and some rather severe contests. Both parties have invariably made the same assertions — that the land was theirs; that they wanted it for an inheritance for their children after them; that life was of no consequence to them unless they could possess that particular piece of land; that they had come prepared to die, and if they could not have the land, would at least die upon it. One party has, of course, always had the best of the contest. The weaker party, like wise men, have invariably retired and left the conquerors in possession of the land; and immediately they ascertained that they could not possess it, have given up all idea of dying upon it. The New Zealanders are an ambitious and a courageous people, but they are an intelligent people also — and no people on earth ever knew better how to be beaten, or to submit graciously to a superior power. It will be said, perhaps, that the natives may submit and yield up land to each other in this way, but would never yield land to the pakeha. A person who will make this assertion must be ignorant of New Zealand, and what has already transpired in the country.

The first war in which we were involved with the natives was forced upon the Government by the turbulent proceedings of a Ngapuhi chief, Honi Heke. Heke was a chief equal in rank to any of the men taking part in the present rebellion, and probably superior to any of them in education and general information. Heke had no ill-will to the colonists, as was proved by many acts of generosity during the war. But he had the common infirmity: he was a restless, ambitious man, who had a thirst for military glory, and wished to measure his strength with the English force then in New Zealand — I believe about 25 men. So he cut down what he regarded as the emblem of British sovereignty, the flagstaff in the Bay of Islands. The staff was re-erected, and cut down by Heke in defiance of the Government, if I mistake not, three different times. The people of the town of Kororareka became involved in the quarrel, and the township was taken by the natives, sacked, and laid in ashes — an event which I personally witnessed. Things were, of course, now become serious. Troops were brought from Sydney, and a large body of allies, under Tamati Waka and Moses Tawhai, joined the Government for the purpose of punishing Heke for his rebellion. In a short time Heke, in an engagement with Waka, was severely wounded, and narrowly escaped falling into the hands of his enemy. Heke proved no exception to the general rule. As soon as defeat and adversity came, Heke's courage and ambition evaporated, and he wrote to Governor Fitzroy, confessing his error, acknowledging his defeat, begging for peace, and offering land to the Queen as the price of peace. Governor Fitzroy immediately answered Heke's letter, pointing out certain places to be ceded to the Queen as an atonement for his rebellion. Heke was perfectly satisfied, and considered himself liberally dealt with, and wondered that the Government had not taken more land.

Kawiti, however, Heke's ally, who had shut himself up in a pa at the Ruapekapeka, out of which he believed the English could not drive him, was opposed to giving up any land, and wrote an insolent and defiant letter to the Governor, declaring, in the true style of an old New Zealand warrior, that the Governor should never have his land while he lived. That he would die in its defence. There was, therefore, no alternative but for the Government to attack Kawiti, and Governor Fitzroy was making preparations to do this when he was superseded by Governor Grey, whose first act was to meet the native allies. Tamati Waka, on that occasion, addressing Governor Grey, said, (I quote from official translation in despatches to Lord Stanley). " I wish to say to you that there is no chance of making peace, unless Kawiti and Heke agree to give the land mentioned in the terms proposed by Governor Fitzroy. Unless they did so, peace would not remain. What I say now are not my thoughts only, but thoughts of all. There is no chance of peace until the lands are given up to the Queen." Kawiti was soon driven out of his pa, and reduced to great straits for want of food. He saw that his enemy was too powerful for him, so he forgot what he had said about dying for his land, and came and humbled himself to Waka, and begged him to act as mediator, and take his unconditional submission to the Governor, and to say that he was now willing, not only to give up the lands demanded by Governor Fitzroy, but also any other additional lands which Governor Grey might think proper to take, if he would make peace with him and pardon his rebellion.

Is this confirmatory of the idea that the natives, as a people, would contend to the death for the mere barren pride of ownership of land, which they well know will never be of any earthly use to them?— or is not rather contradictory of any such irrational and unphilosophical conclusion ? On reception of Kawiti's submission, the Governor immediately proclaimed peace, and a free pardon to all the rebels, without taking an inch of their land; supposing that so generous a proceeding would for ever attach the natives in gratitude to Government. Events have shown how much he was mistaken. Even the flagstaff was not erected, but was seven years after, when I left the Bay of Islands,in the humiliating position to which Heke had consigned it, and a native has pointed out to me the dishonored staff which bore the flag that for a thousand years has “Braved the battle and the breeze.”

With the following sentence, not a very euphonious one in the ears of a loyal subject of the greatest sovereign in the world : — '" Ko Wikitoria tena, e moe ana i te puehu, i rote te wahi i tura kiua ai ia e Hone Heke." (There is Victoria sleeping in the dust, in the place into which she was thrown by Johnny Heke.)-- Lecture to Young Men's Christian Association, Auckland.

(Hawke’s Bay Herald, 2 September 1863)

In 1865, as superintendent of the Wesleyan circuit in Auckland, Rev Warren conducted the ceremony of the laying of the foundation stone for the Pitt Street Wesleyan Church. (Southern Cross, 16 November 1865) In 1869, he settled in the Otahuhu circuit, and continued to lecture into the 1870s. At his Onehunga home, he became known for growing oranges, amongst the first in Auckland. (Wellington Independent, 16 June 1874). He fell seriously ill in June 1879. He died 24 November 1883 at Park House in Ponsonby, aged 69.

It was announced at the Wesleyan Conference in Wellington on 31 January 1884 that Rev Warren bequeathed £100 to the Supernumerary Fund. (Thames Star, 31 January 1884) His name was amongst those of other pioneering Wesleyan missionaries on plaques unveiling at Pitt Street church in April 1893. (Bay of Plenty Times, 14 April 1893)

The name at the head of this notice is another of those early pioneers who know much but who, so far as is present known, has left no memoranda of the vast amount of useful native and other knowledge which he must have acquired during a sojourn of nearly 40 years amongst the Maoris. As is well known Mr Schnakenberg has been for a very long time connected with the Wesleyan mission to the Maoris in the southern part of the Auckland province. A native of Prussia, he was brought up in the Lutheran faith, and while still a young man removed to London to push his fortunes in a commercial career. After a short residence there, he emigrated to Sydney about forty years ago, and was connected with a mercantile house there.

His principals wishing to extend their trade relations with New Zealand, young Schnackenberg was commissioned to proceed to New Zealand to be the agent of the firm among the Maoris for the purpose of purchasing flax and other articles produced by the Maoris. For a short time he was thus employed, but having joined the Wesleyan Commissioner while in Sydney, the late Rev Mr Whiteley prevailed upon Mr Schnackenberg to become identified with the Wesleyan Mission to the Maoris, whose language he was fast acquiring great facility in using. Mr Schnackenberg gave his consent, and his first station was in the Mokau district. There he laboured many years and gained the esteem and confidence of the Maoris. He was subsequently removed to the Kawhia district and for the last sixteen years he has laboured in the district around Raglan, at which place he had his residence.

During his career on the southwest coast of this province he had been associated in the mission work with the Rev Messrs Wallis, Smales, Whiteley, Buttle, Buddle and Turton. He possessed the full confidence of the Maori people, and had great influence with them.

At the time of the Rev Mr Volkner’s murder on the East Coast Mr Schnackenberg was caused to remove his family to Raglan for greater safety by the heads of the mission, though he had full confidence in living amongst those for whose elevation he had so long laboured. But it was deemed unsafe, and he obeyed the orders sent him. Since he came to Raglan, his circuit of labour has extended from Raglan on the north to Kawhia on the south, and from the sea on the west to Te Kopua, near Alexandra, on the east. The district is large, and his labours were incessant. He not only attended to the spiritual wants of the Maoris, but preached to the scattered European settlers in the district, sometimes making his journeys by canoe, and at other times on horseback. He was liked by all classes of people, and was ever ready to give a helping hand to the different new arrivals in his district. Many will miss his kindly advice and substantial help, and wherever he was known he was respected. So esteemed was he by the Maoris that they desired his remains should be buried amongst them as an evidence of their respect for him, and as a proof of the interest he took in their affairs.

Besides the spiritual charge of those in his district, the Government native schools have practically been under his supervision for many years. He was the chief advisor of the Government on native matters in that district; and during the lifetime of the late Sir Donald McLean he was repeatedly urged to join the Government service on account of his local knowledge and the respect the natives had for him. Their repeated offers he steadfastly refused, and he plodded on with the details of the work to which he had set himself.

For several years his health had not been so good as he could have desired, and about a month ago he consulted Dr Philson who, on examining him, found that his heart was extensively affected. When he died on Tuesday evening he was on the way to Auckland for a little rest and for medical treatment. His end was peace, and he quietly stepped from one world to the other just before crossing the Manukau Bar, on board the Lalla Rookh, at the age of 67 years, in the presence of Mrs Schnackenberg and his brother-in-law, Mr Allen.

Mr Schnackenberg was married to the eldest daughter of Mr Edward Allen, Mount Albert, about seventeen or eighteen years ago. She has a family of five living – three girls and two boys. The eldest is about 15 and the youngest about 7 years. The funeral takes place tomorrow at 2 o’clock. His remains will leave the residence of Mr Allen, Mount Albert, and the Pitt-street Wesleyan Church at 3 o’clock. Many of the friends of the deceased gentleman will no doubt pay their last respects to one who has taken part in the early work of laying the foundations and building up the colony to its present importance.

(NZ Herald 12 August 1880)

The biography of his wife Annie Jane Schnackenberg can be found here.

Edward Allen (d. 1891) arrived in Auckland in November 1861. By April 1863, he was a resident at Mt Albert. Allen was an active member of the Mt Albert Road Board (successor to the Highway District) from the time of its formation, and a member of the local school committee. He was a member of the Wesleyan Methodist Church and one of the trustees of the Wesley College at Three Kings.

He was also the landowner who refused to have part of his farm dedicated as a road for the continuation of New North Road in the 1860s through to Avondale – hence, the odd angle at the intersection of New North, Mt Albert and Carrington Roads today. More on him can be found here.